Historical Archaeology: The Native Alaskan Village Site

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Historical Archaeology: The Native Alaskan Village Site



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Some , belong to smaller Indigenous groups. Large numbers of Bolivian highland peasants retained Indigenous language, culture, customs, and communal organization throughout the Spanish conquest and the post-independence period. They mobilized to resist various attempts at the dissolution of communal landholdings and used legal recognition of "empowered caciques" to further communal organization. Indigenous revolts took place frequently until That march successfully pressured the national government to sign the ILO Convention and to begin the still-ongoing process of recognizing and giving official title to Indigenous territories. The Law of Popular Participation granted "grassroots territorial organizations;" these are recognized by the state and have certain rights to govern local areas.

Some radio and television programs are produced in the Quechua and Aymara languages. The constitutional reform in recognized Bolivia as a multi-lingual, pluri-ethnic society and introduced education reform. In , for the first time in the country's history, an Indigenous Aymara, Evo Morales , was elected as president. Morales began work on his "Indigenous autonomy" policy, which he launched in the eastern lowlands department on 3 August Bolivia was the first nation in the history of South America to affirm the right of Indigenous people to self-government.

The issue divided the country. Indigenous peoples of Brazil make up 0. Brazil is now the nation that has the largest number of uncontacted tribes, and the island of New Guinea is second. The Washington Post reported in , "As has been proved in the past when uncontacted tribes are introduced to other populations and the microbes they carry, maladies as simple as the common cold can be deadly. In the s, members of the Panara tribe died within two years of discovery after contracting such diseases as flu and chickenpox, leaving only 69 survivors. The Mapuche successfully fought off defeat in the first — years of Spanish rule during the Arauco War. Relations with the new Chilean Republic were good until the Chilean state decided to occupy their lands.

Their land was opened to settlement by Chileans and Europeans. Conflict over Mapuche land rights continues to the present. A minority today within Colombia 's overwhelmingly Mestizo and White Colombian population, Indigenous peoples living in Colombia, consist of around 85 distinct cultures and more than 1,, people. One of the influences is the Muisca culture, a subset of the larger Chibcha ethnic group , famous for their use of gold , which led to the legend of El Dorado. At the time of the Spanish conquest , the Muisca were the largest Indigenous civilization geographically between the Incas and the Aztecs empires. Ecuador was the site of many Indigenous cultures, and civilizations of different proportions.

An early sedentary culture, known as the Valdivia culture , developed in the coastal region, while the Caras and the Quitus unified to form an elaborate civilization that ended at the birth of the Capital Quito. Their architecture remains were later destroyed by Spaniards and the Incas. Linguistic evidence suggests that the Salascan and the Saraguro may have been the descendants of Bolivian ethnic groups transplanted to Ecuador as mitimaes. In , Indigenous peoples formed the first "truly" national political organization. Genetic testing indicates that Peruvian Mestizos are of predominantly indigenous ancestry. Cultural citizenship—or what Renato Rosaldo has called, "the right to be different and to belong, in a democratic, participatory sense" —is not yet very well developed in Peru.

This is perhaps no more apparent than in the country's Amazonian regions where Indigenous societies continue to struggle against state-sponsored economic abuses, cultural discrimination, and pervasive violence. Most Venezuelans have some Indigenous heritage and are pardo , even if they identify as white. The Indigenous peoples speak around 29 different languages and many more dialects. As some of the ethnic groups are very small, their native languages are in danger of becoming extinct in the next decades. The most advanced Indigenous peoples to have lived within the boundaries of present-day Venezuela is thought to have been the Timoto-cuicas , who lived in the Venezuelan Andes.

Historians estimate that there were between thousand and thousand Indigenous inhabitants at the time of Spanish colonization. The most densely populated area was the Andean region Timoto-cuicas , thanks to their advanced agricultural techniques and ability to produce a surplus of food. The constitution of Venezuela gives Indigenous peoples special rights , although the vast majority of them still live in very critical conditions of poverty. The government provides primary education in their languages in public schools to some of the largest groups, in efforts to continue the languages. Indigenous peoples make up the majority of the population in Bolivia and Peru , and are a significant element in most other former Spanish colonies.

According to the Census, 2. Since the late 20th century, Indigenous peoples in the Americas have become more politically active in asserting their treaty rights and expanding their influence. Some have organized in order to achieve some sort of self-determination and preservation of their cultures. Organizations such as the Coordinator of Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon River Basin and the Indian Council of South America are examples of movements that are overcoming national borders to reunite Indigenous populations, for instance those across the Amazon Basin. Similar movements for Indigenous rights can also be seen in Canada and the United States, with movements like the International Indian Treaty Council and the accession of native Indigenous groups into the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization.

There has been a recognition of Indigenous movements on an international scale. The membership of the United Nations voted to adopt the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples , despite dissent from some of the stronger countries of the Americas. In Colombia, various Indigenous groups have protested the denial of their rights. People organized a march in Cali in October to demand the government live up to promises to protect Indigenous lands, defend the Indigenous against violence, and reconsider the free trade pact with the United States.

In , Evo Morales of the Aymara people was the first Indigenous candidate elected as president of Bolivia and the first in South America. Neither recombines , and thus Y-DNA and mtDNA change only by chance mutation at each generation with no intermixture between parents' genetic material. Zakharov to believe that, among all the previously-studied Asian peoples, it is "the peoples living between Altai and Lake Baikal along the Sayan mountains that are genetically closest to" Indigenous Americans. Some scientific evidence links Indigenous peoples of the Americas to Asian peoples, specifically the Indigenous peoples of Siberia , such as the Ket , Selkup , Chukchi and Koryak peoples. Indigenous peoples of the Americas have been linked to some extent to North Asian populations by the distribution of blood types , and in genetic composition as reflected by molecular data, and limited DNA studies.

Available genetic patterns lead to two main theories of genetic episodes affecting the Indigenous peoples of the Americas; first with the initial peopling of the Americas , and secondly with European colonization of the Americas. The most popular theory among anthropologists is the Bering Strait theory , of human settlement of the New World occurred in stages from the Bering sea coast line , with a possible initial layover of 10, to 20, years in Beringia for the small founding population. A study in Nature reported that DNA found in the 24,year-old remains of a young boy from the archaeological Mal'ta-Buret' culture suggest that up to one-third of the ancestry of Indigenous peoples may be traced back to western Eurasians , who may have "had a more north-easterly distribution 24, years ago than commonly thought" with the rest tracing back to early East Asian peoples.

Professor Kelly Graf said:. First, it shows that Upper Paleolithic Siberians came from a cosmopolitan population of early modern humans that spread out of Africa to Europe and Central and South Asia. Second, Paleoindian skeletons like Buhl Woman with phenotypic traits atypical of modern-day indigenous Americans can be explained as having a direct historical connection to Upper Paleolithic Siberia. A route through Beringia is seen as more likely than the Solutrean hypothesis. Taking into account that C4c is deeply rooted in the Asian portion of the mtDNA phylogeny and is indubitably of Asian origin, the finding that C4c and X2a are characterized by parallel genetic histories definitively dismisses the controversial hypothesis of an Atlantic glacial entry route into North America.

The scientists suggest that the main ancestor of the Ainu and of some Indigenous groups can be traced back to Paleolithic groups in Southern Siberia. A study found that Indigenous peoples of the Americas and Polynesians most likely came into contact around A study published in the Cell journal in , analysed 49 ancient Native American samples from all over North and South America, and concluded that all Native American populations descended from an single ancestral source population which split from Siberians and East Asians, and gave rise to the Ancestral Native Americans, which later diverged into the various Indigenous groups.

The authors further dismissed previous claims for the possibility of two distinct population groups among the peopling of the Americas and concluded that both Northern and Southern Native Americans are closest to each other, and do not show evidence of admixture with hypothetical previous populations. Another study published in the Nature journal in , which analysed a large amount of ancient genomes, similarly concluded that all Native Americans descended from the movement of people from Northeast Asia into the Americas.

These Ancestral Americans, once south of the continental ice sheets, spread and expanded rapidly, and branched into multiple groups, which later gave rise to the major subgroups of Native American populations. The study also dismissed the existence of an hypothetical distinct non-Native American population suggested to have been related to Indigenous Australians and Papuans , sometimes called "Paleoamerican".

The authors posited that these previous claims were based on a misinterpreted genetic echo, which was revealed to represent early East-Eurasian geneflow close but distinct to the 40,BC old Tianyuan lineage into Aboriginal Australians and Papuans. North America. South America. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Indigenous people of the Americas. Pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Americas and their descendants.

For the South Asian country, see India. For the peoples of India, see Indian people. Inuit religion Native American religion Mesoamerican religion Christianity. Main article: Native American name controversy. Further information on theories of the origins and migrations of the Paleo-Indians : Settlement of the Americas. Main articles: Pre-Columbian era and Archaeology of the Americas. Main article: European colonization of the Americas. See also: Historical trauma. Map of all Indian Residential Schools in Canada, including gravesites.

This map can be expanded and interacted with. Confirmed discoveries Investigations underway as of July 30, Investigations that concluded with no discoveries Other Indian Residential Schools Data. Main article: Indigenous languages of the Americas. Main articles: Visual arts by Indigenous peoples of the Americas and Indigenous music. Further information: Population history of Indigenous peoples of the Americas. Main article: Indigenous peoples in Canada. Main article: Greenlandic Inuit. Main article: Indigenous peoples of Mexico. Main article: Indigenous peoples of Costa Rica. Main articles: Demographics of El Salvador and Salvadoran peasant massacre.

Main article: Demographics of Guatemala. Main article: Indigenous peoples of South America. See also: Demographics of Argentina , Indigenous peoples in Argentina , and List of indigenous languages in Argentina. This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. April Main articles: Demographics of Bolivia and Indigenous peoples in Bolivia. Main article: Indigenous peoples in Chile. Main article: Indigenous peoples in Colombia. Main article: Indigenous peoples in Ecuador. Main article: Indigenous peoples in Peru. Main article: Indigenous peoples in Suriname. Main article: Indigenous peoples in Venezuela. Main article: Genetic history of Indigenous peoples of the Americas.

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In Raudzens, George ed. History of warfare. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers published Retrieved 27 October It is clear that in pre-Columbian times some groups struggled to survive and often suffered food shortages and famines, while others enjoyed a varied and substantial diet. Famine and Social Dissolution". Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press published In Tenochtitlan, during the famine of 1 Rabbit in , Moctezuma Ilhuicamina distributed food from the royal granaries to the poor. When the stores ran out, he gave permission for the populace to leave the city to find food elsewhere and people left. The populations of Texcoco, Chalco, Xochimilco, and Tepanecapan also fled their cities. The Maya Lowlands appear to have suffered a famine at the same time, and the cities of Chichen Itza, Mayapan, and Uxmal appear to have been all abandoned simultaneously [ Retrieved 29 July Lentz, ed.

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