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After your paper has been accepted and uploaded to the ACM Digital Library, you'll receive an invitation from Kudos to create an account and add a plain-language description. Hence Westerners lost their relative advantage in education, as the world saw more people with high-school diplomas than ever before; the number of people with bachelor's and advanced degrees grew significantly as well. Westerners who only passed secondary school had their income cut in real terms during that same period while those with university degrees had incomes that barely increased on average.
In addition, the fact that many jobs can be done remotely thanks to modern technology further eroded the relative advantage of education in the West, resulting in a backlash against immigration and globalization. As more and more women became educated in the developing world, more leave the rural areas for the cities, enter the work force and compete with men, sparking resentment among men in those countries.
For information on public support for higher education for domestic students in the OECD in , see chart below. However, Swedish students typically graduate very indebted due to the high cost of living in their country, especially in the large cities such as Stockholm. Moreover, about seven out of eight Swedes graduate with debt, compared to one half in the U. In Sweden, student aid is based on their own earnings whereas in some other countries, such as Germany or the United States, such aid is premised on parental income as parents are expected to help foot the bill for their children's education.
In the —09 academic year, Australia, Austria, Japan, the Netherlands, and New Zealand saw an increase in both the average tuition fees of their public universities for full-time domestic students and the percentage of students taking advantage of state-sponsored student aid compared to In the United States, there was an increase in the former but not the latter. In , judges in Karlsruhe, Germany, struck down a ban on university fees as unconstitutional on the grounds that it violated the constitutional right of German states to regulate their own higher education systems.
This ban was introduced in order to ensure equality of access to higher education regardless of socioeconomic class. Opponents believed fees would make it more difficult for people to study and graduate on time. This has led to the decline of German research institutions. In the s, due to a combination of financial hardship and the fact that universities elsewhere charged tuition, British universities pressed the government to allow them to take in fees. Because not all parents would be able to pay all the fees in one go, monthly payment options, loans, and grants were made available. Some were concerned that making people pay for higher education may deter applicants. This turned out not to be the case. Despite this, the number of people interested in pursuing higher education grew at a faster rate than the UK population.
In , almost half of young people in England had received higher education by the age of Prime Minister Tony Blair introduced the goal of having half of young Britons having a university degree in , though the deadline was missed. There has been, however, a widening gender gap. In Australia, university tuition fees were introduced in Regardless, the number of applicants has risen considerably. The most expensive subjects were law, medicine, and dentistry, followed by the natural sciences, and then by the arts and social studies. Under the new funding scheme, the Government of Australia also capped the number of people eligible for higher education, enabling schools to recruits more well-financed though not necessarily bright students.
The difference was especially great during the second half of the twentieth century, when enrollment rose dramatically compared to the s. This trend continues into the twenty-first century. But things started to change by the turn of the new millennium. By the late s, the situation has reversed. Women are now more likely to enroll in university than men. In , upwards of one third of each sex is a university student. In the United States today, high school students are generally encouraged to attend college or university after graduation while the options of technical school and vocational training are often neglected.
Students with learning disabilities or behavioral issues were often directed towards vocational or technical schools. All this changed in the late s and early s thanks to a major effort in the large cities to provide more abstract academic education to everybody. The mission of high schools became preparing students for college, referred to as "high school to Harvard. People became increasingly concerned about debts and deficits. No longer were promises of educating "citizens of the world" or estimates of economic impact coming from abstruse calculations sufficient. Colleges and universities found it necessary to prove their worth by clarifying how much money from which industry and company funded research, and how much it would cost to attend.
Because jobs that suited what one studied were so difficult to find in the few years following the Great Recession, the value of getting a liberal arts degree and studying the humanities at an American university came into question, their ability to develop a well-rounded and broad-minded individual notwithstanding. In , the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis published research using data from the Survey of Consumer Finances demonstrating that after controlling for race and age cohort families with heads of household with post-secondary education who were born before there have been wealth and income premiums, while for families with heads of household with post-secondary education but born after the wealth premium has weakened to point of statistical insignificance in part because of the rising cost of college and the income premium while remaining positive has declined to historic lows with more pronounced downward trajectories with heads of household with postgraduate degrees.
According to Turchin, intensifying competition among graduates, whose numbers were larger than what the economy could absorb, leads to political polarization, social fragmentation, and even violence as many become disgruntled with their dim prospects despite having attained a high level of education. He warned that the turbulent s and s could return, as having a massive young population with university degrees was one of the key reasons for the instability of the past. According to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences , students were turning away from liberal arts programs.
Between and , the number of graduates in the humanities dropped from , to , Consequently, many schools have relinquished these subjects, dismissed faculty members, or closed completely. Meanwhile, the number of university students majoring in homeland security, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics STEM , and healthcare skyrocketed. See figure below. Department of Education , people with technical or vocational trainings are slightly more likely to be employed than those with a bachelor's degree and significantly more likely to be employed in their fields of specialty. Despite the fact that educators and political leaders, such as President Barack Obama, have been trying to years to improve the quality of STEM education in the United States, and that various polls have demonstrated that more students are interested in these subjects, graduating with a STEM degree is a different kettle of fish altogether.
Despite their initial interest in secondary school, many university students find themselves overwhelmed by the reality of a rigorous STEM education. Many bright students had an easy time in high school and failed to develop good study habits. In contrast, Chinese, Indian, and Singaporean students are exposed to mathematics and science at a high level from a young age. Competition can defeat even the top students. Meanwhile, grade inflation is a real phenomenon in the humanities, giving students an attractive alternative if their STEM ambitions prove too difficult to achieve. Whereas STEM classes build on top of each other—one has to master the subject matter before moving to the next course—and have black and white answers, this is not the case in the humanities, where things are a lot less clear-cut.
In , educational psychologist Jonathan Wai analyzed average test scores from the Army General Classification Test in 10, students , the Selective Service College Qualification Test in 38, , Project Talent in the early s , , the Graduate Record Examination between and over 1. Wai identified one consistent pattern: those with the highest test scores tended to pick the physical sciences and engineering as their majors while those with the lowest were more likely to choose education. According to a report from Cancer Research UK , millennials in the United Kingdom are on track to have the highest rates of overweight and obesity , with current data trends indicating millennials will overtake the Baby boomer generation in this regard, making millennials the heaviest generation since current records began.
Even though the majority of strokes affect people aged 65 or older and the probability of having a stroke doubles only every decade after the age of 55, anyone can suffer from a stroke at any age. A stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is disrupted, causing neurons to die within minutes, leading to irreparable brain damage, disability, or even death. Statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC , strokes are the fifth leading cause of death and a major factor behind disability in the United States. According to the National Strokes Association, the risk of having a stroke is increasing among young adults those in their 20s and 30s and even adolescents. Health experts believe this development is due to a variety of reasons related to lifestyle choices, including obesity, smoking, alcoholism, and physical inactivity.
Obesity is also linked to hypertension , diabetes , and high cholesterol levels. According to a report from the American College of Cardiology , the prevalence of heart attacks among Americans under the age of 40 increased by an average rate of two percent per year in the previous decade. About one in five patients suffered from a heart attack came from this age group. This is despite the fact that Americans in general were less likely to suffer from heart attacks than before, due in part to a decline in smoking.
The consequences of having a heart attack were much worse for young patients who also had diabetes. Besides the common risk factors of heart attacks, namely diabetes, high blood pressure, and family history, young patients also reported marijuana and cocaine intake, but less alcohol consumption. Millennials struggle with dental and oral health.
Fewer American millennials follow sports than their Generation X predecessors,  with a McKinsey survey finding that 38 percent of millennials in contrast to 45 percent of Generation X are committed sports fans. Regarding the sports participation by millennials, activities that are popular or emerging among millennials including boxing ,  cycling ,   running ,  and swimming ,  while other sports including golf are facing decline among millennials.
According to the survey of 30, Americans, which was conducted in , approximately half of U. The report from the Physical Activity Council found millennials were more active than Baby Boomers in Thirty-five percent of both millennials and Generation X were reported to be "active to a healthy level", with millennial's activity level reported as higher overall than that of Generation X in According to demographer and public policy analyst Philip Longman , "even among baby boomers, those who wound up having children have turned out to be remarkably similar to their parents in their attitudes about 'family' values.
Life in the late s and s was centered about the family and the family was centered around children. The bar plot roughly resembles a Gaussian distribution or an isosceles triangle centered around moderates. The Economist observed in that, like their British counterparts, millennials in the United States held more positive attitudes towards recognizing same-sex marriage than older demographic cohorts.
In general, the fall of comfort levels was the steepest among people aged 18 to 34 between and Seniors aged 72 or above became more tolerant of LGBT doctors or having their grand children taking LGBT history lessons during the same period, albeit with a bump in discomfort levels in In , Gallup conducted a survey of almost 14, Americans from all 50 states and the District of Columbia aged 18 and over on their political sympathies. They found that overall, younger adults tended to lean liberal while older adults tilted conservative. More specifically, groups with strong conservative leanings included the elderly, residents of the Midwest and the South, and people with some or no college education.
Groups with strong liberal leanings were adults with advanced degrees, whereas those with moderate liberal leanings included younger adults 18 to 29 and 30 to 49 , women, and residents of the East. Gallup found little variations by income groups compared to the national average. See above. Meanwhile, the proportion of conservatives remained largely unchanged, albeit with fluctuations.
Liberals became a majority in this political party for the first time in In other words, this political party saw its conservative majority expanding. Meanwhile, among political independents, the percentage of moderates, the dominant group, remained largely unchanged. See chart. In most cases, millennials tended hold quite different views from the Silent Generation, with the Baby Boomers and Generation X in between. Very few thought that fathers should be the ones mainly responsible for taking care of children. Pew Research noted similar age related trends in the United Kingdom, but not in Germany and Spain, where millennials were less supportive of restricting offensive speech than older generations.
In France, Italy, and Poland no significant age differences were observed. Critics of such changes have raised concerns regarding their impact on free speech , asserting these changes can promote censorship , while proponents have described these changes as promoting inclusiveness. Older Americans consistently prefer capitalism to socialism. Whether the current attitudes of millennials and Generation Z on capitalism and socialism will persist or dissipate as they grow older remains to be seen.
In general, the older someone was, the less likely that they supported abortion. See chart to the right. In his doctoral dissertation submitted in , social psychologist Jason Weeden conducted statistical analyses on general-public and undergraduate datasets and reached conclusions supporting the hypothesis that attitudes towards abortion are more strongly predicted by mating-relevant variables than by variables related to views on the sanctity of life.
For instance, the stability of long-term partnerships may be threatened by the availability of short-term sexual opportunities. Therefore, public policy measures that impose costs on casual sexual intercourse may benefit people pursuing long-term mating strategies by reducing the availability of short-term mating opportunities outside of committed relationships. Such policies include the prohibition of abortion and of recreational drug use. This relationship remained strong even when controlling for personality traits, political orientation, and moral values. By contrast, nonsexual variables typically associated with attitudes towards drug legalization were strongly attenuated or eliminated when controlling for sexuality-related measures.
Polls conducted by Gallup and the Pew Research Center found that support for stricter gun laws among people aged 18 to 29 and 18 to 36, respectively, is statistically no different from that of the general population. In , the Pew Research Center interviewed over 2, Americans aged 18 and over on their views of various components of the federal government. Older people were more likely to dislike larger government. They found that the most popular federal agencies were the U. Differences in opinion might be due to education as younger Americans are more likely to have been taught about climate change in schools than their elders. There are no rivers for new dams. In early , Harvard University's Institute of Politics Youth Poll asked voters aged 18 to 29—younger millennials and the first wave of Generation Z—what they would like to be priorities for U.
Preventing nuclear proliferation and defending U. Millennials are more willing to vote than previous generations when they were at the same age. Pew Research described millennials as playing a significant role in the election of Barack Obama as President of the United States. Millennials were between 12 and 27 during the U. Back in , the two main American political parties split the vote of this age group. This was a significant shift in the American political landscape.
Millennials not only provided their votes but also the enthusiasm that marked the election. They volunteered in political campaigns and donated money. But when looking at white millennials only, Pew found that Obama's advantage which he enjoyed in ceased to be, as they were split between the two candidates. Although millennials are one of the largest voting blocs in the United States, their voting turnout rates have been subpar. Millennials may still be a potent force at the ballot box, but it may be years before their participation rates reach their numerical potential as young people are consistently less likely to vote than their elders.
In general, the phenomenon of growing political distrust and de-alignment in the United States is similar to what has been happening in Europe since the last few decades of the twentieth century, even though events like the Watergate scandal or the threatened impeachment of President Bill Clinton are unique to the United States. Such an atmosphere depresses turnouts among younger voters. Although people between the ages of 25 and 44 were more likely to vote, their turnout rate followed a similarly declining trend during the same period. Political scientists Roger Eatwell and Matthew Goodwin argued that it was therefore unrealistic for Hillary Clinton to expect high turnout rates among millennials in This political environment also makes voters more likely to consider political outsiders such as Bernie Sanders and Donald Trump.
In particular, while Trump supporters were markedly enthusiastic about their chosen candidate, the number of young voters identifying with the GOP has not increased. Bernie Sanders , a self-proclaimed democratic socialist and Democratic candidate in the United States presidential election , was the most popular candidate among millennial voters in the primary phase , having garnered more votes from people under 30 in 21 states than the major parties' candidates, Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton , did combined.
Polls conducted right before the election showed that millennial blacks and Hispanics were concerned about a potential Trump presidency. By contrast, Trump commanded support among young whites, especially men. There was also an enthusiasm gap for the two main candidates. These people tended to be non-degree holders with full-time jobs and were markedly less likely to be financially insecure than those who did not support Trump. Contrary to the claim that young Americans felt comfortable with the ongoing transformation of the ethnic composition of their country due to immigration, not all of them approve of this change despite the fact that they are an ethnically diverse cohort.
As is the case with many European countries, empirical evidence poses real challenges to the popular argument that the surge of nationalism and populism is an ephemeral phenomenon due to 'angry white old men' who would inevitably be replaced by younger and more liberal voters. Roosevelt, have been turning away from the left-leaning Democratic Party in favor of the right-leaning Republican Party. As the Democratic Party attempted to make itself friendlier towards the university-educated and women during the s, more blue-collar workers and non-degree holders left.
Political scientist Larry Bartels argued because about one quarter of Democrat supporters held social views more in-tune with Republican voters and because there was no guarantee millennials would maintain their current political attitudes due to life-cycle effects, this process of political re-alignment would likely continue. As is the case with Europe, there are potential pockets of support for national populism among younger generations. A Reuters-Ipsos survey of 16, registered voters aged 18 to 34 conducted in the first three months of and before the midterm election showed that overall support for Democratic Party among such voters fell by nine percent between and and that an increasing number favored the Republican Party's approach to the economy.
Pollsters found that white millennials, especially men, were driving this change. For young white men the shift was even more dramatic. This is despite the fact that almost two thirds of young voters disapproved of the performance of Republican President Donald J. In their youth during the early 21st century, British millennials were generally considered a relatively politically disengaged generation. Turnout at United Kingdom general elections fell sharply after the millennium with involvement lowest among the young.
A majority of 18 to 24 year olds failed to vote in the , and general elections with participation reaching a record low among this age group of The Economist reported in that surveys of political attitudes among millennials in the United Kingdom revealed that they held more liberal views on social and economic matters than older demographic groups. They favored individual liberty, small government, low taxes, limited welfare programs, and personal responsibility. While support for increased welfare programs for the poor at the cost of potentially higher taxes has declined steadily since the s among all living demographic cohorts in the U. On the other hand, they had a more relaxed attitude towards alcohol consumption, euthanasia , same-sex marriage and the legalization of drugs.
They disliked immigration, though less than their elders. They were more likely than their elders to support public debt reduction. They cared about the environment, but not at the expense of economic prosperity, and they supported privatizing utilities. In other words, they were classical liberals or libertarians. Ipsos pollster Ben Page told The Economist , "Every successive generation is less collectivist than the last. About one third opined that taxes and public spending were too high. According to a YouGov poll conducted right before the referendum on the possible departure of the United Kingdom from the European Union Brexit in , almost three quarters of voters aged 18 to 24 opposed leaving the E.
Many older voters came of age when Britain was a less ethnically diverse country, when collective memory of the British Empire and its victory in World War II was strong, when most people did not attend university, and spent a large part of their formative years in a society where abortion and homosexuality were illegal and the death penalty was in use. By contrast, millennials, many of whom supported the left-wing politician Jeremy Corbyn , grew up at a time when the United Kingdom was a member of the EU, when graduation from university was common, and when the political consensus favoured immigration and EU membership.
But age is not the only reason, as voter data shows. However, only Public opinion polls often underestimated the political power of working-class voters because these people are typically underrepresented in samples. Commonly made predictions of a victory for the Remain side created a sense of complacency among those who wanted the U. While young people tend to view the European Union more favorably, it is erroneous to believe that they all oppose Brexit for all the same reasons. For example, someone from Northern Ireland is probably more concerned about the prospects of a physical border between that part of the U.
Besides many wealthy retirees, immigrants, and children of immigrants, one third of university graduates voted to leave. Despite reports of a surge in turnouts among young voters in the and United Kingdom general elections, statistical scrutiny by the British Elections Study revealed that the margin of error was too large to determine whether or not there was a significant increase or decrease in the number of young participants. Winning the support of young people does not necessarily translate to increasing young voters' turnouts,  and positive reactions on social media may not lead to success at the ballot box.
In addition, higher turnouts generally came from constituencies where there were already large proportions of young people, both toddlers and young adults, and such surges did not necessarily come from young voters. In , there was indeed an increase in overall voter turnout, but only by 2. Canadian millennials played a key role in the election of Justin Trudeau as Prime Minister of Canada. While Stephen Harper and the Conservative Party received approximately the same number of votes as they did in , the surge in the youth vote was enough to push Trudeau to the top.
His core campaign message centered around gender equality, tolerance, legalizing marijuana, addressing climate change , and governmental transparency while Harper focused on tax cuts. Nevertheless, political scientist Melanee Thomas at the University of Calgary warned that the electoral power of this demographic group should not be overestimated, since millennials do not vote as a single bloc. Most want to address climate change, alleviate poverty, and adopt a more open immigration policy, but most important were micro-economic concerns, such as housing affordability, the cost of living, healthcare, and job-market uncertainties.
Because clear majorities are in favor of government interventionism, they generally tolerate deficit spending. According to Sean Simpsons of Ipsos , people are more likely to vote when they have more at stake, such as children to raise, homes to maintain, and income taxes to pay. In France, while year-long mandatory military service for men was abolished in by President Jacques Chirac , who wanted to build a professional all-volunteer military,  all citizens between 17 and 25 years of age must still participate in the Defense and Citizenship Day JAPD , when they are introduced to the French Armed Forces, and take language tests. The rationale for the reintroduction of national service was that "France needs powerful tools to help promote integration, mix young people of different social backgrounds and levels, and to instill Republican values and national cohesion.
This poll was conducted after the Charlie Hebdo terrorist attacks. The period between the middle to the late twentieth century could be described as an era of 'mass politics', meaning people were generally loyal to a chosen political party. Political debates were mostly about economic questions, such as wealth redistribution, taxation, jobs, and the role of government. But as countries transitioned from having industrial economies to a post-industrial and globalized world, and as the twentieth century became the twenty-first, topics of political discourse changed to other questions and polarization due to competing values intensified.
While this new period of political evolution was taking place, a new cohort of voters—millennials—entered the scene and these people tend to think differently about the old issues than their elders. Moreover, they are less inclined than previous generations to identify strongly with a particular political party. But scholars such as Ronald Inglehart traced the roots of this new 'culture conflict' all the way back to the s, which witnessed the emergence of the Baby Boomers, who were generally university-educated middle-class voters. Whereas their predecessors in the twentieth century—the Lost Generation, the Greatest Generation, and the Silent Generation—had to endure severe poverty and world wars, focused on economic stability or simple survival, the Baby Boomers benefited from an economically secure, if not affluent, upbringing and as such tended to be drawn to 'post-materialist' values.
Major topics for political discussion at that time were things like the sexual revolution, civil rights, nuclear weaponry, ethnocultural diversity, environmental protection, European integration, and the concept of 'global citizenship'. Some mainstream parties, especially the social democrats, moved to the left in order to accommodate these voters. In the twenty-first century, supporters of post-materialism lined up behind causes such as LGBT rights, climate change, multiculturalism, and various political campaigns on social media.
Inglehart called this the "Silent Revolution. Degree holders tend to favor tolerance, individual rights, and group identities whereas non-degree holders lean towards conformity, and maintaining order, customs, and traditions. In many major democracies, such as France, although the representation of women and ethnic minorities in the corridors of power has increased, the same cannot be said for the working-class and non-degree holders. By analyzing voter data, political scientists Roger Eatwell and Matthew Goodwin came to the conclusion that the popular narrative that the rise of national-populist movements seen across much of the Western world is due largely to angry old white men who would soon be replaced by younger and more liberal voters is flawed.
In many European democracies, national-populist politicians and political parties tend to be the most popular among voters below the age of In France, Marine Le Pen and her National Rally formerly the National Front won more votes from people between the ages of 18 and 35 during the first round of the Presidential election than any other candidates. In Italy, Matteo Salvini and his League have a base of support with virtually no generational gap. In Austria, more than one in two men between the ages of 18 and 29 voted for the Freedom Party in The Alternative for Germany 's strongest support came not from senior citizens but voters between 25 and 50 years of age.
The Sweden Democrats were the second most popular political party for voters aged 18 to 24 and the most popular for those between 35 and 54 before the Swedish general election. Millennials in the U. In , millennials purchased more cars and trucks than any living generation except the Baby Boomers; in fact, millennials overtook Baby Boomers in car ownership in California that year. Census Bureau, and American Community Survey in order to compare the driving habits of the Baby Boomers, Generation X, and the oldest millennials born between and That found that on the surface, the popular story is true: American millennials on average own 0. But when various factors—including income, marital status, number of children, and geographical location—were taken into account, such a distinction ceased to be.
In addition, once those factors are accounted for, millennials actually drive longer distances than the Baby Boomers. Economic forces, namely low gasoline prices, higher income, and suburban growth, result in millennials having an attitude towards cars that is no different from that of their predecessors. An analysis of the National Household Travel Survey by the State Smart Transportation Initiative revealed that higher-income millennials drive less than their peers probably because they are able to afford the higher costs of living in large cities, where they can take advantage of alternative modes of transportation, including public transit and ride-hailing services.
According to the Pew Research Center, young people are more likely to ride public transit. By contrast, this number of all U. That number for all U. Urban researcher Richard Florida and his colleague Charlotta Mellander studied data from the American Community Survey's five-year estimates for covering all U. They found that the largest clusters of metropolitan areas in which it was feasible to not own a car were the Northeast Corridor Boston to Washington, D. Outside of these, there were Chicagoland and Los Angeles County. All of these places were densely populated with high costs of living.
Mellander discovered that living in a car-free metropolitan area was positively correlated with having university degrees. Correlation does not mean causation. In virtually all Western countries, the proportions of religious people began declining when the first wave of the Baby Boomers entered adulthood in the s and has declined ever since. Children of the Baby Boomers tend to be even less religious than they are. Even the United States of America, which is quite religious by Western standards, is not an exception to this trend, though the decline there was slower than in Europe.
One-third said that they discussed religion with friends, attended religious services, and read religious material weekly. Twenty-three percent of those studied did not identify themselves as religious practitioners. In fact, when controlled for family structure and sexual attitudes, variables such as age, sex, and moral beliefs on sexuality substantially drop in significance in determining religiosity. In the context of the United States, religiousness facilitates seeking and maintaining high-fertility, marriage-oriented, heterosexual monogamous relationships. As such, the central goals of religious attendance are reproduction and child-rearing. However, this Reproductive Religiosity Model does not necessarily apply to other countries.
In Singapore, for example, they found no relationships between the religiousness of Buddhists and their attitudes towards sexuality. A U. Globally, religion is in decline in North America and Western Europe, but is growing in the rest of the world. Although the number of atheists, agnostics, and people not affiliated with organized religion continues to grow in Europe and the United States, their percentage of the world population is falling because of their comparatively low fertility rate 1. For comparison, the median age of the global population was 28 in Overall, Christians have a fertility rate of 2. Islam is the world's fastest growing religion.
London is a gateway for immigrants coming to the United Kingdom, and many of them were highly religious. According to a study, across Europe, many young Muslims were finding themselves attracted by transnational Islam; those under the age of 25 were more likely to support Muslim-only schools, and Sharia law, and to condone violence to defend their religion than their counterparts over the age of Immigration from the Middle East and Africa is an engine of religious growth in Europe. Children of immigrants tend to be about as religious as their parents and consider their religion to be a marker of their ethnic identity, thereby insulating themselves from the secularizing forces of the host society. Religion can indeed grow even in otherwise secular societies, and such religious demographic changes will bring about social and political ramifications later in the century.
In particular, the unaffiliated gained eight million people and Muslims half a million while Christians lost nine million due to religious switching. In March , the Pew Research Center issued a report about how "millennials in adulthood" are "detached from institutions and networked with friends. In many countries, people have since the mid-twentieth century been increasingly looking for mates of the same socioeconomic status and educational attainment.
The phenomenon of preferring mates with characteristics similar to one's own is known as assortative mating. Part of the reason growing economic and educational assortative mating was economic in nature. Innovations which became commercially available in the late twentieth century such as the washing machine and frozen food reduced the amount of time people needed to spend on housework, which diminished the importance of domestic skills. People thus had a clear economic incentive to seek out a mate with at least as high a level of education in order to maximize their potential income. People have since the mid-twentieth century increasingly wanted intelligent and well-educated children, and marrying bright people who make a lot of money goes a long way in achieving that goal.
Modern marriage is more about companionship rather than bread-winning for the man and homemaking for the woman. According to the Chinese National Bureau of Statistics, the number of people getting married for the first time went from Meanwhile, the marriage rate continued its decline, 6. These trends are due to multiple reasons. The one-child policy, introduced in , has curbed the number of young people in China.
On top of that, the traditional preference for sons has resulted in a marked gender imbalance; as of , China has over 30 million 'surplus' men. In the s, the Chinese government reformed higher education in order to increase access, whereupon significantly more young people, a slight majority of whom being women, have received a university degree. Consequently, many young women are now gainfully employed and financially secure. Traditional views on gender roles dictate that women be responsible for housework and childcare, regardless of their employment status.
Workplace discrimination against women with families is commonplace; for example, an employer might be more skeptical towards a married woman with one child, fearing she might have another as the one-child policy was rescinded in and take more maternity leave. Altogether, there is less incentive for young women to marry. For young Chinese couples in general, the cost of living, especially the cost of housing in the big cities, is a serious obstacle to marriage. In addition, Chinese millennials are less keen on tying the knots than their predecessors as a result of cultural change.
Writing for The Atlantic in , Kate Julian reported that among the countries that kept track of the sexual behavior of their citizens—Australia, Finland, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States—all saw a decline in the frequency of sexual intercourse among teenagers and young adults. Although experts disagree on the methodology of data analysis, they do believe that young people today are less sexually engaged than their elders, such as the baby boomers, when they were their age. This is despite the fact that online dating platforms allow for the possibility of casual sex, the wide availability of contraception, and the relaxation of attitudes towards sex outside of marriage. A study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA by researchers from Indiana University in the United States and the Karolinska Institutet from Sweden found that during the first two decades of the twenty-first century, young Americans had sexual intercourse less frequently than in the past.
Among men aged 18 to 24, the share of the sexually inactive increased from Women aged 18 to 34 had sex less often as well. Reasons for this trend are manifold. People who were unemployed, only had part-time jobs, and students were the most likely to forego sexual experience while those who had higher income were stricter in mate selection. Psychologist Jean Twenge, who did not participate in the study, suggested that this might be due to "a broader cultural trend toward delayed development," meaning various adult activities are postponed. She noted that being economically dependent on one's parents discourages sexual intercourse.
Other researchers noted that the rise of the Internet, computer games, and social media could play a role, too, since older and married couples also had sex less often. In short, people had many options. In all, one in two of single adults were not looking for a romantic relationship. People aged 18 to 29 were most likely to have met their current partners in school while adults aged 50 and up were more likely to have met their partners at work. This reflects the general trend across the generations that men tend to marry later and die earlier than women.
Most single people, regardless of whether or not they were interested in dating, felt little to no pressure from their friends and family to seek a romantic partner. Young people, however, were under significant pressure compared to the sample average or older age groups. According to the Brookings Institution, the number of American mothers who never married ballooned between , when they were extremely rare, and , when they became much more common, especially among the less educated.
In particular, in , the number of mothers who never married with at least 16 years of education was 3. Unintended pregnancies were also higher among the less educated. The data showed similar trends for males. High student debt is described as one reason for continuing to live with parents, but may not be the dominant factor for this shift as the data shows the trend is stronger for those without a college education. Richard Fry, a senior economist for Pew Research said of millennials, "they're the group much more likely to live with their parents," further stating that "they're concentrating more on school, careers and work and less focused on forming new families, spouses or partners and children.
According to a cross-generational study comparing millennials to Generation X conducted at Wharton School of Business , more than half of millennial undergraduates surveyed do not plan to have children. The researchers compared surveys of the Wharton graduating class of and The results were similar for male students. The research revealed among both genders the proportion of undergraduates who reported they eventually planned to have children had dropped in half over the course of a generation. Desire to have more children was not related to level of education, country of birth, sexual orientation or relationship status. Some Swedish men 'passively' choose not to have children because they feel their life is already good as it is without bringing children to the world, and because they do not face the same amount of social pressure to have children the way voluntarily childless women do.
But as their economic prospects improve, most millennials in the United States say they desire marriage, children, and home ownership. The prospects of any given country is constrained by its demography. However, the data cannot tell whether marriage causes happiness or the other way around; correlation does not mean causation. In fact, it was the lower and middle classes that were driving the U. For comparison, among those aged 50 and up, the divorce rate went from 5 in to 10 in ; that among people aged 40 to 49 increased from 18 to 21 per 1, married persons.
University graduates are more likely to get married but less likely to divorce. They also discovered that fertility rates were falling faster in the developing world than previously thought, and subsequently revised their projection of human population in down to 9. The global average fertility rate was 2. Effects of intensifying assortative mating discussed in the previous section will likely be seen in the next generation, as parental income and educational level are positively correlated with children's success. In , author Ron Alsop called the millennials "Trophy Kids,"  a term that reflects a trend in competitive sports, as well as many other aspects of life, where mere participation is frequently enough for a reward. It has been reported that this is an issue in corporate environments.
In the Journal of Business and Psychology , contributors Myers and Sadaghiani find millennials "expect close relationships and frequent feedback from supervisors" to be a main point of differentiation. Hershatter and Epstein also stress a growing importance on work-life balance. Studies show nearly one-third of students' top priority is to "balance personal and professional life". There is also a contention that the major differences are found solely between millennials and Generation X. Researchers from the University of Missouri and The University of Tennessee conducted a study based on measurement equivalence to determine if such a difference does in fact exist.
Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences questions the validity of workplace differences across any generational cohort. According to the researchers, disagreement in which events to include when assigning generational cohorts, as well as varied opinions on which age ranges to include in each generational category are the main drivers behind their skepticism. They look for versatility and flexibility in the workplace, and strive for a strong work—life balance in their jobs  and have similar career aspirations to other generations, valuing financial security and a diverse workplace just as much as their older colleagues.
Data also suggests millennials are driving a shift towards the public service sector. In , Myers and Sadaghiani published research in the Journal of Business and Psychology stating heightened participation in the Peace Corps and AmeriCorps as a result of millennials, with volunteering being at all-time highs. The Brookings publication shows a generational adherence to corporate social responsibility, with the National Society of High School Scholars NSHSS survey and Universum's survey, depicting a preference to work for companies engaged in the betterment of society. Marc Prensky coined the term " digital native " to describe "K through college" students in , explaining they "represent the first generations to grow up with this new technology.
Generation: What Higher Education Professionals Need to Know About Today's Students , authors Reynol Junco and Jeanna Mastrodicasa expanded on the work of William Strauss and Neil Howe to include research-based information about the personality profiles of millennials, especially as it relates to higher education. They conducted a large-sample 7, research study of college students. They found that Net Generation college students, born onwards, were frequently in touch with their parents and they used technology at higher rates than people from other generations.
They also found that students spoke with their parents an average of 1. One of the most popular forms of media use by millennials is social networking. Millennials use social networking sites, such as Facebook and Twitter , to create a different sense of belonging, make acquaintances, and to remain connected with friends. However, some other millennials do not even have a TV , so they watch media over the Internet using smartphones and tablets. A study found that the frequency of nearsightedness has doubled in the United Kingdom within the last 50 years. Ophthalmologist Steve Schallhorn, chairman of the Optical Express International Medical Advisory Board, noted that research have pointed to a link between the regular use of handheld electronic devices and eyestrain.
The American Optometric Association sounded the alarm on a similar vein. However, the syndrome does not cause vision loss or any other permanent damage. In order to alleviate or prevent eyestrain, the Vision Council recommends that people limit screen time , take frequent breaks, adjust screen brightness, change the background from bright colors to gray, increase text sizes, and blinking more often.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Generation Y. For other uses, see Generation Y disambiguation and Millennials disambiguation. For the American crime drama film, see Echo Boomers film. Generation who came of age in the beginning of the third millennium. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. February Russian youths at the Geek Picnic in See also: Aging of Europe and Russian Cross. See also: Aging of Australia. See also: Aging in the American workforce. This article is missing information about mental health issues. Please expand the article to include this information.
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