Steve Biko Psychology

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Steve Biko Psychology

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The basic tenet of Black Consciousness is that the Blackman must reject all value systems that seek to make him a foreigner in the country of his birth and reduce his basic human dignity. Begin to look upon yourself as a human being. SASO decided after a debate to remain non-affiliated with NUSAS, but would nevertheless recognise the larger organisation as the national student body. The early focus of the Black Consciousness Movement BCM was on criticising anti-racist white liberals and liberalism itself, accusing it of paternalism and being a "negative influence" on black Africans.

Biko argued that NUSAS merely sought to influence the white electorate; in his opinion, this electorate was not legitimate, and protests targeting a particular policy would be ineffective for the ultimate aim of dismantling the apartheid state. Biko voted in favour of the group's creation but expressed reservations about the lack of consultation with South Africa's Coloureds or Indians. Mayatula became the BPC's first president; Biko did not stand for any leadership positions. My major problem at this moment is a strange kind of guilt. So many friends of mine have been arrested for activities in something that I was most instrumental in starting. A lot of them are blokes I spoke into the movement.

And yet I am not with them. One does not think this way in political life of course. Casualties are expected and should be bargained for. Mangcu , p. While the BPC was primarily political, Black Consciousness activists also established the Black Community Programmes BCPs to focus on improving healthcare and education and fostering black economic self-reliance. Biko's banning order in prevented him from working officially for the BCPs from which he had previously earned a small stipend, but he helped to set up a new BPC branch in Ginsberg, which held its first meeting in the church of a sympathetic white clergyman, David Russell.

By , the government regarded Black Consciousness as a threat. This prevented him from leaving the King William's Town magisterial district, prohibited him from speaking either in public or to more than one person at a time, barred his membership of political organisations, and forbade the media from quoting him. In December , attempting to circumvent the restrictions of the banning order, the BPC declared Biko their honorary president. The state claimed that Black Consciousness philosophy was likely to cause "racial confrontation" and therefore threatened public safety. Biko was called as a witness for the defence; he sought to refute the state's accusations by outlining the movement's aims and development.

In , Biko had enrolled for a law degree by correspondence from the University of South Africa. He passed several exams, but had not completed the degree at his time of death. During his ban, Biko asked for a meeting with Donald Woods , the white liberal editor of the Daily Dispatch. Under Woods' editorship, the newspaper had published articles criticising apartheid and the white-minority regime and had also given space to the views of various black groups, but not the BCM. Biko hoped to convince Woods to give the movement greater coverage and an outlet for its views. Biko acknowledged that his earlier "antiliberal" writings were "overkill", but said that he remained committed to the basic message contained within them. Over the coming years the pair became close friends.

The security services took Biko to the Walmer police station in Port Elizabeth, where he was held naked in a cell with his legs in shackles. Biko was examined by a doctor, Ivor Lang, who stated that there was no evidence of injury on Biko. News of Biko's death spread quickly across the world, and became symbolic of the abuses of the apartheid system. Speaking publicly about Biko's death, the country's police minister Jimmy Kruger initially implied that it had been the result of a hunger strike , a statement he later denied. His account was challenged by some of Biko's friends, including Woods, who said that Biko had told them that he would never kill himself in prison.

Both domestic and international pressure called for a public inquest to be held, to which the government agreed. The verdict was treated with scepticism by much of the international media and the US Government led by President Jimmy Carter. After the abolition of apartheid and the establishment of a majority government in , a Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established to investigate past human-rights abuses. In , the Constitutional Court ruled against the family, allowing the investigation to proceed. The ideas of the Black Consciousness Movement were not developed solely by Biko, but through lengthy discussions with other black students who were rejecting white liberalism.

Biko rejected the apartheid government's division of South Africa's population into "whites" and "non-whites," a distinction that was marked on signs and buildings throughout the country. In response, Biko replaced "non-white" with the category "black," which he regarded as being neither derivative nor negative. In case it has a rebound effect on them because they are white". Black Consciousness directs itself to the black man and to his situation, and the black man is subjected to two forces in this country. He is first of all oppressed by an external world through institutionalised machinery and through laws that restrict him from doing certain things, through heavy work conditions, through poor pay, through difficult living conditions, through poor education, these are all external to him.

Secondly, and this we regard as the most important, the black man in himself has developed a certain state of alienation, he rejects himself precisely because he attaches the meaning white to all that is good, in other words he equates good with white. This arises out of his living and it arises out of his development from childhood. Steve Biko in, Woods , p. Biko saw white racism in South Africa as the totality of the white power structure. He nevertheless thought that white South Africans were poorly suited to this role because they had not personally experienced the oppression that their black counterparts faced.

Biko and his comrades regarded multi-racial anti-apartheid groups as unwittingly replicating the structure of apartheid because they contained whites in dominant positions of control. I reject only the concept that black liberation can be achieved through the leadership of white liberals. Biko's approach to activism focused on psychological empowerment, [53] and both he and the BCM saw their main purpose as combating the feeling of inferiority that most black South Africans experienced.

One of the ways that Biko and the BCM sought to achieve psychological empowerment was through community development. It becomes more necessary to see the truth as it is if you realise that the only vehicle for change are these people who have lost their personality. The first step therefore is to make the black man come to himself; to pump back life into his empty shell; to infuse him with pride and dignity, to remind him of his complicity in the crime of allowing himself to be mis-used and therefore letting evil reign supreme in the land of his birth. That is what we mean by an inward-looking process.

This is the definition of Black Consciousness. Steve Biko in, Mangcu , p. Biko opposed any collaboration with the apartheid government, such as the agreements that the Coloured and Indian communities made with the regime. Biko believed that while apartheid and white-minority rule continued, "sporadic outbursts" of violence against the white minority were inevitable. A staunch anti-imperialist , [] Biko saw the South African situation as a "microcosm" of the broader "black—white power struggle" which manifests as "the global confrontation between the Third World and the rich white nations of the world". Biko hoped that a future socialist South Africa could become a completely non-racial society, with people of all ethnic backgrounds living peacefully together in a "joint culture" that combined the best of all communities.

Black, said Biko, is not a colour; Black is an experience. If you are oppressed, you are Black. In the South African context, this was truly revolutionary. Biko's subsidiary message was that the unity of the oppressed could not be achieved through clandestine armed struggle; it had to be achieved in the open, through a peaceful but militant struggle. Mamdani , p. Biko was neither a communist nor capitalist. In conversation with Woods, Biko insisted that the BCM would not degenerate into anti-white hatred "because it isn't a negative, hating thing.

It's a positive black self-confidence thing involving no hatred of anyone". Our main concern is the liberation of the blacks. Tall and slim in his youth, [] by his twenties Biko was over six feet tall, with the "bulky build of a heavyweight boxer carrying more weight than when in peak condition", according to Woods. His quick brain, superb articulation of ideas and sheer mental force were highly impressive. The charisma of Steve Biko was entirely his own. He had from an early age the unmistakable bearing and quality of a unique leader.

I say unique because his style of leadership was his own — it was un-pushy, un-promotional, yet immediately acknowledged by his peers I was thirteen years older than Steve, yet I always had the feeling I was talking to someone older and wiser, and like many others I often sought his advice on all manner of problems. Woods , pp. Biko and many others in his activist circle had an antipathy toward luxury items because most South African blacks could not afford them. The Nationalist government portrayed Biko as a hater of whites, [] but he had several close white friends, [] and both Woods and Wilson insisted that he was not a racist.

Vorster and Andries Treurnicht , instead hating their ideas. Biko never addressed questions of gender and sexism in his politics. Feminism was viewed as irrelevant "bra-burning". Biko married Ntsiki Mashalaba in December Biko is viewed as the "father" of the Black Consciousness Movement and the anti-apartheid movement's first icon. Although Biko's ideas have not received the same attention as Frantz Fanon's, [] in Ahluwalia and Zegeye wrote that the men shared "a highly similar pedigree in their interests in the philosophical psychology of consciousness, their desire for a decolonising of the mind, the liberation of Africa and in the politics of nationalism and socialism for the 'wretched of the earth'".

Though internationally Steve Biko became a symbol of apartheid abuse in the years following his death, for the [Black Consciousness]-minded wherever they live he has always been remembered for the life he led and the ethos he inspired among millions. And for his family and friends, he was much more: a husband, a father, a son, a brother, a confidant, a self-described freedom fighter. This paper will discuss in the rationality of the movement. It demands an explanation as to why, people are so quick to press a trigger?

Not only this but is brought up the idea of colorblind racism and people being unaware of the privilege that they have both historically and presently. He further addresses double consciousness in this book. It actually weighed so heavily on their souls that it prevented them from achieving their potential as human beings. However, by excluding subversive advocacy and substantive due process in any case creates a problem in legal reasoning. Bork fails to realize that it is important for an individual to claim their right is violated in any circumstance under the Constitution, since he renders that procedural due process plays a more practical role over substantive due process.

Subsequently, the Charter of Rights is intended to operate as a limitation upon the powers of the State. Nye is trying to change the association of America and hegemony to primacy. This means that instead of viewing America as being able to control other states, we should view it as having had advantageous resources and influence. He states that the community represent only the interest of nation that is committed to the maintenance of white supremacy Cone, , The basic tenet of black consciousness is that the black man must reject all value systems that seek to make him a foreigner in the country of his birth and reduce his basic human dignity.

Steve Biko Introduction The fundamental aim of this paper will be to provide a discussion on the codification of African Customary Law. To explore the effects of the codification of African customary law, it is important to critically assess it against a number of theories. Double consciousness, in other words, is knowing a lie while living its contradiction. Codification itself is a problematic term when used in relation to a fluid, unwritten law such as Customary Law. Cape Town officer, wife and children die in house fire 10 hours ago. SA registers new cases and 56 deaths 10 hours ago. Five people, including children, killed in a horror accident in the northwest 12 hours ago. A man sentenced to life imprisonment and 10 years for rape, puncture wounds, and getting off a teenage girl 12 hours ago.

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