Cardinal Wolsey Influence

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Cardinal Wolsey Influence



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The Rise and Fall of Cardinal Wolsey

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Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you. Live TV. This Day In History. History Vault. Recommended for you. Knights of Labor. This pattern repeated in many of Wolsey's other initiatives, particularly his quest to abolish enclosure. Despite spending significant time and effort investigating the state of the countryside and prosecuting numerous offenders, Wolsey freely surrendered his policy during the parliament of to ensure that Parliament passed his proposed taxes for Henry's war in France.

Enclosures remained a problem for many years. Wolsey used the Star Chamber to enforce his policy of Just Price , which attempted to regulate the price of meat in London and other major cities. Those found to be charging too much were prosecuted by the Chamber. After the bad harvest of , Wolsey bought up surplus grain and sold it off cheaply to the needy. This greatly eased disorder and became common practice after a disappointing harvest.

In and Wolsey used his powers as papal legate to dissolve 30 decayed monasteries where monastic life had virtually ceased in practice, some in Ipswich and Oxford. In he began to limit the benefit of clergy. He also attempted, as legate, to force reform on monastic orders like the Augustinian canons. Wolsey died five years before Henry's dissolution of the monasteries began. Wolsey's power depended on maintaining good relations with Henry. He grew increasingly suspicious of the "minions"—young, influential members of the Privy chamber —particularly after infiltrating one of his own men into the group. He attempted many times to disperse them from court, giving them jobs that took them to the Continent and far from Henry.

After the Amicable Grant failed, the minions began to undermine him again. Consequently, Wolsey devised a grand plan of administrative reforms, incorporating the notorious Eltham ordinances of One of Wolsey's greatest impediments was his lack of popularity amongst the nobles at court and in Parliament. Their dislikes and mistrusts partly stemmed from what they saw as Wolsey's excessive demands for money in the form of the Subsidy or benevolences. They also resented the Act of Resumption of , by which Henry VII had resumed possession of all lands granted by the crown since Many nobles resented the rise to power of a low-born man, whilst others simply disliked that he monopolised the court and concealed information from the Privy Council.

When mass riots broke out in East Anglia , which should have been under the control of the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk , Henry was quick to denounce the Amicable Grant, and began to lose faith in Wolsey. During the relatively peaceful period in England after the War of the Roses, its population increased. With more demand for food and no additional supply, prices increased. Landowners were forced to enclose land and convert to pastoral farming, which brought in more profit. Wolsey's quest against enclosure was fruitless in terms of restoring economic stability.

The same can be said for Wolsey's legal reforms. After he made justice accessible to all and encouraged more people to bring cases to court, the system was abused. The courts became overloaded with incoherent, tenuous cases, which would have been far too expensive to have rambled on in the Common Law courts. Wolsey eventually ordered all minor cases out of the Star Chamber in The result of this venture was further resentment by the nobility and the gentry. From , when he became cardinal, until his death, Wolsey used art and architecture to underpin his positions. He initiated a building campaign on a scale not only unprecedented for an English churchman and Lord Chancellor, but also exceeded by few English kings.

In so doing, he brought Italian Renaissance ideas, classical embellishments, and architectural models into English architecture. But Wolsey embraced Italian-inspired classicism nearly half a century before Seymour, though more theoretically than visually. Wolsey's subsequent disgrace over his failure to garner papal approval of an annulment of Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Aragon has clouded the fact that he was not only the first high-profile patron in England to seek out and promote Italian classicism in art, architecture, and magnificence, but also that his contributions endured.

Among Wolsey's projects were lavish, classically inspired additions to York Palace in London, the Archbishop of York's residence. He supervised the grandiose temporary buildings at the Field of Cloth of Gold and renovated Hampton Court, which he later relinquished to the king. Wolsey's use of architecture as a symbol of power, along with his introduction of Italian classical ornamentation, set a trend continued by Henry VIII and others. If these works had been completed as planned, they would be among Europe's largest, most elaborate, and grandest tombs.

As well as his State duties, Wolsey simultaneously attempted to exert his influence over the Church in England. As cardinal and, from , lifetime papal legate, Wolsey continually vied for control over others in the Church. His principal rival was William Warham , the Archbishop of Canterbury , who made it more difficult for Wolsey to follow through with his plans for reform. Despite making promises to reform the bishoprics of England and Ireland, and, in , encouraging monasteries to embark on a programme of reform, he did nothing to bring about these changes.

Wolsey's failure to secure the annulment directly caused his downfall and arrest. It was rumoured that Anne Boleyn and her faction convinced Henry that Wolsey was deliberately slowing proceedings; as a result, he was arrested in , and the Pope decided that the official decision should be made in Rome, not England. In Wolsey was stripped of his government office and property, including his magnificently expanded residence of Hampton Court , which Henry took to replace the Palace of Westminster as his own main London residence.

Wolsey was permitted to remain Archbishop of York. He travelled to Yorkshire for the first time in his career, but at Cawood in North Yorkshire , he was accused of treason and ordered to London by Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland. In great distress, he set out for the capital with his personal chaplain, Edmund Bonner. He fell ill on the journey, and died at Leicester on 29 November , around the age of Just before his death he reputedly spoke these words:. I see the matter against me how it is framed. But if I had served God as diligently as I have done the King, he would not have given me over in my grey hairs.

In keeping with his practice of erecting magnificent buildings at Hampton Court, Westminster and Oxford, Wolsey had planned a magnificent tomb at Windsor by Benedetto da Rovezzano and Giovanni da Maiano , but he was buried in Leicester Abbey now Abbey Park without a monument. Paul's Cathedral. Henry often receives credit for artistic patronage that properly belongs to Wolsey. Wolsey lived in a "non-canonical" marriage for around a decade with a woman called Joan Larke of Yarmouth , Norfolk.

The edict that priests, regardless of their functions or the character of their work, should remain celibate had not been wholeheartedly accepted in England. The son was sent to live with a family in Willesden and tutored in his early years by Maurice Birchinshaw. He later married and had children of his own. Dorothy was adopted by John Clansey, and was in due course placed in the convent at Shaftesbury Abbey. Following the dissolution of the monasteries under Thomas Cromwell she was awarded a pension. He provided the dowry. Before Wolsey was removed from power, he planned to make his home town of Ipswich a seat of learning.

He built a substantial college, which for two years, —, was parent of the Queen Elizabeth School or Ipswich School , which today flourishes on another site. All that remains of Wolsey's structure is the former waterside gate, figured by. Francis Grose in his Antiquities , which can still be seen on College Street. He is far from forgotten in the town of Ipswich, an appeal [35] having been launched in October to erect a statue there as a permanent commemoration. Arising from this project, a more-than-life-sized bronze statue to Cardinal Wolsey, shown seated facing south towards St Peter's Church the former mediaeval Augustinian Priory Church of St Peter and St Paul, which Wolsey annexed as the chapel of his College of Ipswich , teaching from a book, with a familiar cat at his side, was unveiled from beneath a covering flag on 29 June near the site of the Wolsey home on St Nicholas Street, Ipswich.

After a civic procession from the Tower Church, the image, created by sculptor David Annand , was dedicated by blessing in the name of the Holy Trinity by the Bishop of St Edmundsbury and Ipswich , and launched in the civic capacity by the Mayor of Ipswich, in the presence of a crowd of onlookers. A statue of Wolsey stands in Leicester's Abbey Park close to the site of his burial. It was donated by the Wolsey hosiery company , a major employer in the city and also named after the cardinal. The Wolsey Place shopping centre and Woking F. Cardinal Wolsey's bust was used in the s above the London Transport roundel on London's buses in west and south-west London as the symbol of the Cardinal bus district, which was named after him and his residence at Hampton Court.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Cardinal Wolsey. For other uses, see Wolsey disambiguation. For the silent film, see Cardinal Wolsey film. Portrait at Trinity College , University of Cambridge c. Cardinal Archbishop of York Primate of England. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 12 October Evening Star. Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 26 August Armstrong, Alastair Pearson Education.

ISBN Bernard, G. Harvester Press. Bindoff, Stanley Thomas Tudor England. Brydges, Sir Egerton Censura literaria: Containing titles, abstracts, and opinions of old English books, with original disquisitions, articles of biography, and other literary antiquities. Chaney, Edward The Evolution of the Grand Tour. Psychology Press. Crosby, Colin n. Colin Crosby Heritage Tours. Fellows, Nicholas; Dicken, Mary Hodder Education.

Davies, C. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online ed. Oxford University Press. Subscription or UK public library membership required. Fletcher, Stella Gunn, S. Guy, John S. Oxford: University Press. Gwyn, Peter J Random House. Episode 3: Episode 3 Original Air Date: Apr 15, A visit from Charles V forces Henry to conceal his growing disaffection from Queen Katherine, who is the influential Spanish monarch's aunt - even as Henry comes face-to-face with the seductive Anne Boleyn for the first time.

Episode 5: Episode 5 Original Air Date: Apr 29, Henry is stunned by a reversal in his alliance with Charles V and forced to look elsewhere for European support, while an insulted Anne Boleyn refuses his offer of permanent mistress status, inflaming his desire to marry her. Episode 7: Episode 7 Original Air Date: May 13, The country is struck down with food shortages and an outbreak of plague, forcing the normally buoyant Henry to doubt his future and abilities - but a sudden change in fortunes is on the horizon.

Episode 8: Episode 8 Original Air Date: May 20, A special envoy from the Pope arrives to hear Henry's petition regarding the legitimacy of his marriage, with the fate of Cardinal Wolsey's career, the king's romance with Anne Boleyn, and the nation's relationship with Rome in the balance. Episode 9: Episode 9 Original Air Date: Jun 3, The fall from grace and power of Cardinal Wolsey is fast and merciless, with the one-time Lord Chancellor stripped of authority and influence. Episode Episode 10 Original Air Date: Jun 10, In the Season One finale, a disgraced Cardinal Wolsey tries one last, desperate gambit to resurrect his career by allying himself with the similarly fallen Queen Katherine, but the king's new advisors learn of their plot. An Ireland-Canada Co-Production.

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