Dichotomy And Evidence Of Confucianism

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Dichotomy And Evidence Of Confucianism



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Perspectives Perspectives. Phenomenology [Perspectives] Phenomenology. Pilgrimage [Practices] Pilgrimage. Places Places. Podcasts Podcasts. Polytheism [Concepts] Polytheism. Practice [Practices] Practice. Practices Practices. Prayer [Practices] Prayer. White stones are worshipped as it is believed that they may be invested with the power of the gods through rituals. They are shamans who acquire their position through years of training with a teacher. They also administer the coming of age ceremony for 18 years-old boys, called the "sitting on top of the mountain", which involves the boy's entire family going to mountain tops, to sacrifice a sheep or cow and to plant three cypress trees.

Two of the most important religious holidays are the Qiang New Year, falling on the 24th day of the sixth month of the lunar calendar though now it is fixed on 1 October , and the Mountain Sacrifice Festival, held between the second and the sixth month of the lunar calendar. The former festival is to worship the God of Heaven, while the latter is dedicated to the god of mountains. The Yao people , who reside in Guangxi and Hunan and surrounding provinces, follow a folk religion that is deeply integrated with Taoism since the 13th century, so much that it is frequently defined as "Yao Taoism". The reason of such strong identification of Yao religion with Taoism is that in Yao society every male adult is initiated as a Taoist.

Yao Taoism is therefore a communal religion, not identifying just a class of priests but the entire body of the society; this contrasts with Chinese Taoism, which mostly developed as a collection of sacerdotal orders. The shared sense of Yao identity is further based on tracing back Yao origins to a mythical ancestor, Panhu. Its beliefs are codified into a mythology and a sacred scripture, the "Buluotuo Epic".

A very similar religion, also called by the same name, is that of the Buyei people , who are kindred to the Zhuang. The Zhuang religion is intertwined with Taoism. Since the s and the s there has been a revival of Zhuang folk religion, which has followed two directions. The first is a grassroots revival of cults dedicated to local deities and ancestors, led by shamans; the second way is a promotion of the religion on the institutional level, through a standardisation of Moism elaborated by Zhuang government officials and intellectuals. Christianity existed in China as early as the 7th century, living multiple cycles of significant presence for centuries, then disappearing for other centuries, and then being re-introduced by foreign missionaries.

The arrival of the Persian missionary Alopen in , during the early period of the Tang dynasty , is considered by some to be the first entry of Christianity in China. What Westerners referred to as Nestorianism flourished for centuries, until Emperor Wuzong of the Tang in ordained that all foreign religions Buddhism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism had to be eradicated from the Chinese nation. Christianity was reintroduced in China in the 13th century, in the form of Nestorianism, during the Mongol Yuan dynasty , which also established relations with the papacy , especially through Franciscan missionaries in When the native Han Chinese Ming dynasty overthrew the Yuan dynasty in the 14th century, Christianity was again expelled from China as a foreign influence.

At the end of the Ming dynasty in the 16th century, Jesuits arrived in Beijing via Guangzhou. The most famous amongst them was Matteo Ricci , an Italian mathematician who came to China in and lived in Beijing. Ricci was welcomed at the imperial court and introduced Western learning into China. The Jesuits followed a policy of adaptation of Catholicism to traditional Chinese religious practices, especially ancestor worship.

Roman Catholic missions struggled in obscurity for decades afterwards. Christianity began to take root in a significant way in the late imperial period, during the Qing dynasty , and although it has remained a minority religion in China, it influenced late imperial history. Waves of missionaries came to China in the Qing period as a result of contact with foreign powers. Russian Orthodoxy was introduced in , and Protestant missions began entering China in The pace of missionary activity increased considerably after the First Opium War in Christian missionaries and their schools, under the protection of the Western powers, went on to play a major role in the Westernisation of China in the 19th and 20th centuries.

The Taiping Rebellion — was influenced to some degree by Christian teachings, and the Boxer Rebellion — was in part a reaction against Christianity in China. Christians in China established the first clinics and hospitals practising modern medicine , [] and provided the first modern training for nurses. Both Roman Catholics and Protestants founded numerous educational institutions in China from the primary to the university level. Some of the most prominent Chinese universities began as religious institutions. Missionaries worked to abolish practices such as foot binding , [] and the unjust treatment of maidservants, as well as launching charitable work and distributing food to the poor. They also opposed the opium trade [] and brought treatment to many who were addicted.

Some of the early leaders of the early republic —49 , such as Sun Yat-sen , were converts to Christianity and were influenced by its teachings. By , Harbin, Manchuria 's largest city, had a Russian population of around ,, constituting a large part of Christianity in the city. Christianity, especially in its Protestant form, gained momentum in China between the s and the s, but, in the following years, folk religion recovered more rapidly and in greater numbers than Christianity or Buddhism. Protestants in the early 21st century, including both official and unofficial churches, had between 25 and 35 million adherents. Catholics were not more than 10 million. In the same years, about 40 million Chinese said they believed in Jesus Christ or had attended Christian meetings, but did not identify themselves with the Christian religion.

Christians were unevenly distributed geographically, the only provinces in which they constituted a population significantly larger than 1 million persons being Henan , Anhui and Zhejiang. Protestants were characterised by a prevalence of people living in the countryside, women, illiterates and semi-literates, and elderly people. A significant number of members of churches unregistered with the government, and of their pastors, belong to the Koreans of China.

For instance, of the twenty-eight registered churches of Yanji , only three of which are Chinese congregations, all the Korean churches have a male pastor while all the Chinese churches have a female pastor. If the current trend continues, China will have the largest Christian population in the world as some have estimated. In recent decades the CCP has remained intolerant of Christian churches outside party control, [] looking with distrust on organisations with international ties. The government and Chinese intellectuals tend to associate Christianity with subversive Western values, and many churches have been closed or destroyed. In addition, Western and Korean missionaries are being expelled.

In September , the Holy See and the Chinese government signed the Holy See-China Agreement , a historic agreement concerning the appointment of bishops in China. The Vatican spokesman Greg Burke described the agreement as "not political but pastoral, allowing the faithful to have bishops who are in communion with Rome but at the same time recognized by Chinese authorities". Emperor Gaozong is said to have shown esteem for Islam and to have founded the Huaisheng Mosque Memorial Mosque at Guangzhou, in memory of the Prophet himself.

Muslims, mainly Arabs, travelled to China to trade. In the year , the Yangzhou massacre killed large numbers of these traders, and a century later, in the years —, Chinese rebels fatally targeted the Arab community in the Guangzhou massacre. Yet, Muslims virtually came to dominate the import and export industry by the Song dynasty — The office of Director General of Shipping was consistently held by a Muslim. Immigration increased during the Yuan dynasty — , when hundreds of thousands of Muslims were relocated throughout China for their administrative skills. A Muslim, Yeheidie'erding , led the construction project of the Yuan capital of Khanbaliq , in present-day Beijing. During the Ming dynasty — , Muslims continued to have an influence among the high classes.

Hongwu Emperor's most trusted generals were Muslim, including Lan Yu , who led a decisive victory over the Mongols, effectively ending the Mongol dream to re-conquer China. The admiral Zheng He led seven expeditions to the Indian Ocean. Muslims who were descended from earlier immigrants began to assimilate by speaking Chinese dialects and by adopting Chinese names and culture, mixing with the Han Chinese.

They developed their own cuisine , architecture , martial arts' styles and calligraphy sini. This era, sometimes considered a Golden Age of Islam in China, also saw Nanjing become an important center of Islamic study. The rise of the Qing dynasty saw numerous Islamic rebellions, including the Panthay Rebellion which occurred in Yunnan from to , and the Dungan Revolt , which occurred mostly in Xinjiang , Shaanxi and Gansu from to The Manchu government ordered the execution of all rebels, killing a million Muslims after the Panthay Rebellion, [] and several million after the Dungan Revolt.

These Muslim generals belonged to the Khufiyya sect, while rebels belonged to the Jahariyya sect. A few years later, an Islamic army called the Kansu Braves , led by the general Dong Fuxiang, fought for the Qing dynasty against the foreigners during the Boxer Rebellion. In the s, the provinces of Qinghai , Gansu and Ningxia came under the control of Muslim warlords known as the Ma clique , who served as generals in the National Revolutionary Army. During the Cultural Revolution , mosques were often defaced, closed or demolished, and copies of the Quran were destroyed by the Red Guards.

After the s Islam experienced a renewal in China, with an upsurge in Islamic expression and the establishment Islamic associations aimed to coordinate inter-ethnic activities among Muslims. Muslims are found in every province of China, but they constitute a majority only in Xinjiang, and a large amount of the population in Ningxia and Qinghai. Of China's recognised ethnic minorities, ten groups are traditionally Islamic. In the s they were served by 35, to 45, mosques, 40, to 50, imams ahong , and 10 Quranic institutions.

The most prominent early community were the so-called Kaifeng Jews , in Kaifeng , Henan province. In the 20th century many Jews arrived in Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Harbin, during a period of great economic development of these cities. Many of them sought refuge from anti-Semitic pogroms in the Russian Empire early s , the communist revolution and civil war in Russia — , and anti-Semitic Nazi policy in central Europe, chiefly in Germany and Austria — The last wave of Jewish refugees came from Poland and other eastern European countries in the early s. Shanghai was particularly notable for its numerous Jewish refugees, who gathered in the so-called Shanghai Ghetto. Most of them left China after the war, the rest relocating prior to, or immediately after, the establishment of the People's Republic.

Today, the Kaifeng Jewish community is functionally extinct. Many descendants of the Kaifeng community still live among the Chinese population, mostly unaware of their Jewish ancestry, while some have moved to Israel. Meanwhile, remnants of the later arrivals maintain communities in Shanghai and Hong Kong. In recent years a community has also developed in Beijing through the work of the Chabad-Lubavitch movement. Since the late 20th century, along with the study of religion in general, the study of Judaism and Jews in China as an academic subject has blossomed with the establishment of institutions such as Diane and Guilford Glazer Institute of Jewish Studies and the China Judaic Studies Association.

One of them was the "Silk Route by Sea" that started from the Coromandel Coast in southeast India and reached Southeast Asia and then southeastern Chinese cities; another route was that from the ancient kingdom of Kamrupa , through upper Burma, reaching Yunnan ; a third route is the well-known Silk Route reaching northwest China, which was the main route through which Buddhism spread into China. Archeological remains of Hindu temples and typical Hindu icons have been found in coastal cities of China and in Dali , Yunnan. Hindu texts were translated into Chinese, including a large number of Indian Tantric texts and the Vedas , which are known in Chinese as the Minglun or Zhilun , or through phonetic transliteration as the Weituo , Feituo or Pituo.

In the 7th century there was an intellectual exchange between Taoists and Shaktas in India, with the translation of the Daodejing in Sanskrit. The effect of Hinduism in China is also evident in various gods, originally of Hindu origin, which have been absorbed into the Chinese folk religion. Historical sources speak of the religion being introduced in China in , though this may have happened much earlier.

Manichaeism had a bad reputation among Tang dynasty authorities, who regarded it as an erroneous form of Buddhism. However, as a religion of the Western peoples Bactrians , Sogdians it was not outlawed, provided that it remained confined to them not spreading among Chinese. In a Manichaean priest was asked by the current Chinese emperor to make a summary of Manichaean religious doctrines, so that he wrote the Compendium of the Teachings of Mani, the Awakened One of Light , rediscovered at Dunhuang by Aurel Stein — ; in this text Mani is interpreted as an incarnation of Laozi.

In the early 8th century, Manichaeism became the official religion of the Uyghur Khaganate. As Uyghurs were traditional allies of the Chinese, also supporting the Tang during the An Lushan Rebellion at the half of the century, the Tangs' attitude towards the religion relaxed and under the Uyghur Khaganate's patronage Manichaean churches prospered in Nanjing , Yangzhou , Jingzhou , Shaoxing and other places. When the Uyghur Khaganate was defeated by the Kyrgyz in , Manichaeism's fortune vanished as anti-foreign sentiment arose among the Chinese. Manichaean properties were confiscated, the temples were destroyed, the scriptures were burnt and the clergy was laicised, or killed, as was the case of seventy nuns who were executed at the Tang capital Chang'an.

The religion never recovered from the persecutions, but it persisted as a distinct underground movement at least until the 14th century, particularly among southeastern Chinese, resurfacing from time to time supporting peasant rebellions. The first phase of Zoroastrianism in China started in the Wei and Jin dynasties of the Northern and Southern dynasties ' period — , when Sogdian Zoroastrians advanced into China.

They did not proselytise among Chinese, and from this period there are only two known fragments of Zoroastrian literature, both in Sogdian language. The Tang dynasty — prohibited Chinese people to profess Zoroastrianism, so it remained primarily a religion of foreign residents. Before the An Lushan Rebellion — , Sogdians and Chinese lived as segregated ethnic groups; however, after the rebellion intermarriage became common and the Sogdians were gradually assimilated by the Chinese. The second phase of Zoroastrianism in China was in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period — , and saw the development of an indigenous Chinese Zoroastrianism that lasted until modern times.

During this period, the gods of Sogdian Zoroastrianism were assimilated into the Chinese folk religion ; Zoroastrian currents of the Chinese folk religion were increasingly practised by the Chinese and survived until the s. The third phase started in the 18th century when Parsi merchants sailed from Mumbai to Macau , Hong Kong and Guangzhou. Parsi cemeteries and fire temples were built in these coastal cities, in east China.

The Parsis were expelled when the CCP rose to power in At the time it was rare for the Chinese to create a character for a foreign religion, and this is an evidence of the effect of Zoroastrians in Tang Chinese society. They were part of the project of cultural assimilation of Manchuria into Japan, or Japanisation , the same policy that was being applied to Taiwan. With the end of the Second World War and of the Manchu Country Manchukuo in , and the return of Manchuria to China under the Kuomintang , Shinto was abolished and the shrines were destroyed.

During Japanese rule also many Japanese new religions , or independent Shinto sects , proselytised in Manchuria establishing hundreds of congregations. Most of the missions belonged to the Omoto teaching , the Tenri teaching and the Konko teaching of Shinto. The government of the People's Republic of China officially espouses state atheism , [3] and has conducted antireligious campaigns to this end. China has a history of schools of thought not relying upon conceptions of an absolute, or putting absolutes into question.

Mark Juergensmeyer observes that Confucianism itself is primarily pragmatic and humanist , in it the "thisworldliness" being the priority. The Classic of Poetry contains several catechistic poems in the Decade of Dang questioning the authority or existence of the God of Heaven. He wrote that the soul is merely an effect or function of the body, and that there is no soul without the body—after the death and destruction of the body. For this, he was exiled by Emperor Wu of Liang — From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Religious beliefs in China. This article is about religion in the history of China and religion in the People's Republic of China. For religion in the Republic of China, see religion in Taiwan. Buddhism Taoism , Folk Sects and Other religious organisations, [note 2] 7. Protestantism 2. Islam [note 3] 0. Catholicism 0. North America. South America.

See also: Shang-Zhou theology. Further information: Chinese shamanism , Wu shaman , and Sino-Babylonianism. Shang and Zhou graphemes for Di and Tian. Further information: Hundred Schools of Thought. Large seal. Small seal. Its full meaning is "man receiving instruction from Heaven". According to Kang Youwei , Hu Shih , and Yao Xinzhong , they were the official shaman-priests experts in rites and astronomy of the Shang, and later Zhou, dynasty. See also: Confucian theology. See also: Qin-Han theology. See also: Yellow God theology. Further information: Silk Road transmission of Buddhism. Further information: Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution.

In the late 19th and early 20th century China was flooded with Christian missionaries working for Western powers. Domains of the Christian-inspired Taiping Heavenly Kingdom — , founded by the Christian convert Hong Xiuquan inspired by Biblical millenarianism. The civil war started by Taiping Christians costed between 20—30 million deaths. Further information: Freedom of religion in China. Graphic representations of various analyses. Religious self-identification of university students in Beijing [] Not religious or other Christianity 3. Taoism 2. Islam 2.

Religious self-identification of participants of the cultural nationalist movement in the mainland [] Confucianism Taoism 4. Christianity [E] 0. Don't know 9. See also: Chinese ancestral religion. Main article: Chinese theology. Further information: Tian , Shangdi , and Wufang Shangdi. Main article: Chinese folk religion. Main article: Chinese salvationist religions. Main article: Confucianism. Main article: Taoism. See also: Taoist schools and Chinese Taoist Association. Main article: Chinese ritual mastery traditions. Main article: Chinese shamanism. Further information: Shamanism in China. See also: Chinese Buddhist Association. Main article: Chinese Buddhism. See also: East Asian Buddhism.

Main article: Tibetan Buddhism. See also: Religion in Tibet. Main article: Theravada Buddhism. Main article: Vajrayana. Further information: Tangmi and Azhaliism. Main article: Nichiren Buddhism. Further information: Soka Gakkai. Main article: Benzhuism. Main article: Bimoism. Main article: Bon. Main article: Dongbaism. Main article: Manchu folk religion. Main article: Miao folk religion. Main article: Mongolian shamanism. Main article: Qiang folk religion.

Main article: Yao folk religion. Main article: Zhuang folk religion. Main article: Christianity in China. Main article: History of the Jews in China. Main article: Hinduism in China. Main article: Chinese Manichaeism. Main article: Zoroastrianism. Further information: Sogdia. Main articles: Irreligion in China and Antireligious campaigns in China. China portal Religion portal. An additional 0. Note that the title of "Taoist", in common Chinese usage, is generally attributed only to the Taoist clergy. CFPS found that a further 0. This may have resulted in an underestimation of Muslims.

Elliott's "Shenism". The Chinese folk religion is often considered one of "belonging" rather than "believing". Quote: "According to Dean, 'in the rural sector They earn their living both as a group from performing public rituals, and individually [ Further p. This pattern continues today with former village Communist Party secretaries elected as temple association bosses p. He concludes p. They have special skills in organization, ritual performance or interaction with the gods, but none are full-time ritual specialists; they have all 'kept their day jobs'! As such they are exemplars of ordinary people organizing and carrying out their own cultural traditions, persistent traditions with their own structure, functions and logic that deserve to be understood as such.

The ancient kings or emperors of the Chinese civilisation were shamans or priests, that is to say mediators of the divine rule. The Big Dipper or Great Chariot in Chinese culture as in other traditional cultures is a symbol of the axis mundi , Heaven in its way of manifestation, order of creation li or Tao. For example, an excerpt from Shangqing Taoism 's texts: "Life and death, separation and convergence, all derive from the seven stars. Thus when the Big Dipper impinges on someone, he dies, and when it moves, he lives. That is why the seven stars are Heaven's chancellor, the yamen where the gate is opened to give life.

She gave birth to her son on the mount of Shou Longevity or mount Xuanyuan Chariot Shaft , after which he was named. In its interior, the temple enshrines a statue of Genghis Khan at the center and four of his men on each side the total making nine, a symbolic number in Mongolian culture , there is an altar where offerings to the godly men are made, and three white suldes made with white horse hair. From the central sulde there are strings that hold tied light blue pieces of cloth with a few white ones. The wall is covered with all the names of the Mongol kins. The Chinese worship Genghis as the ancestral god of the Yuan dynasty. Archived from the original PDF on 9 August Retrieved 7 August CS1 maint: archived copy as title link p.

VII 2 : 26— Archived from the original PDF on 22 July Religious Minorities and China. Minority Rights Group International. Muslim Education in the 21st Century: Asian Perspectives. ISBN Subsequently, a new China was found on the basis of Communist ideology, i. Within the framework of this ideology, religion was treated as a 'contorted' world-view and people believed that religion would necessarily disappear at the end, along with the development of human society. A series of anti-religious campaigns was implemented by the Chinese Communist Party from the early s to the late s.

As a result, in nearly 30 years between the beginning of the s and the end of the s, mosques as well as churches and Chinese temples were shut down and Imams involved in forced 're-education'. Religions in the Modern World: Traditions and Transformations 2nd ed. London: Routledge. OCLC A Short History of Christianity. The China Quarterly. S2CID Retrieved 30 May Archived from the original on 11 August Retrieved 10 August II and passim. In Krech, Volkhard; Steinicke, Marion eds.

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The popularity of these Daoist activities underscores the fact that Chinese rural society has a long tradition of religiosity and has preserved and perpetuated Daoism regardless of official policy and religious institutions. With the growth of economic prosperity in rural areas, especially in the coastal provinces where Daoist activities are concentrated, with a more liberal policy on religion, and with the revival of local cultural identity, Daoism — be it the officially sanctioned variety or Daoist activities which are beyond the edge of the official Daoist body — seems to be enjoying a strong comeback, at least for the time being.

Various Buddhist ritual traditions Pu'anjiao, Xianghua married monks and so on are practised throughout this region, particularly for requiem services". In Overmyer, Daniel L. Religion in China Today. A Review Essay". Journal of Chinese Religions. The old imperial government encouraged villages to manage themselves and collect and hand over their own taxes. All these factors tended to strengthen the local protective deities and their temples as focal points of village identity and activity. This social context defines North China local religion, and keeps us from wandering off into vague discussions of 'popular' and 'elite' and relationships with Daoism and Buddhism.

People worship and petition at both pilgrimages and local festivals for similar reasons. The chief differences between the two are the central role of a journey in pilgrimages, the size of the area from which participants are attracted, and the role of pilgrimage societies in organizing the long trips that may be involved. In some instances these gods were worshiped at places believed to be where they originated, with indications of grottoes, temples and festivals for them, some of which continue to exist or have been revived. Of course, these gods were worshiped elsewhere in China as well, though perhaps not with the same sense of original geographical location. Individuals and families who joined them were promised special divine protection in this life and the next by leaders who functioned both as ritual masters and missionaries.

These sects were more active in some communities than in others, but in principle were open to all who responded to these leaders and believed in their efficacy and teachings, so some of these groups spread to wide areas of the country. Puxian and Dizang are bodhisattvas normally considered 'male', though in Buddhist theory such gender categories don't really apply. This practice of adding mu to the names of deities, found already in Ming period sectarian scriptures called baojuan 'precious volumes' from the north, does not occur in the names of southern deities. Archived from the original on 16 January Encyclopedia of Global Religion. Religion and Biography in China and Tibet. Reported in Wang, Xiuhua Baylor University.

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Atheism had long been the official doctrine of the Chinese Communist Party, but this new form of militant atheism made every effort to eradicate religion completely. Yet in the first years after Liberation there were places in China where monasteries were destroyed, monks were beaten or killed, copies of the Buddhist canon were burned, and sacred images were melted down for their metal. The Washington Post. China tops the list of the world's least religious nations by far; it's followed by countries in Europe — about three fourth of all Swedish and Czech also said that they were either atheists or not religious.

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