Persuasive Essay On Extending School Hours
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By creating sub-regions can help in streamlining the operations of the company. Moreover, it also reduces the reporting lines, which leads to better coordination and enhances decision making. It also makes it efficient for the company to filter the local demand trends based on the sub-regions. Sub-dividing the markets also provide better support for each individual markets. Each sub-region is overseen by a sub-regional manager. The local requirements of the individual markets in a sub-region is reported by the sub-regional manager to the EMEA regional headquarter in the Netherland.
The regional headquarters are responsible for designing some of the marketing campaigns, which helps in localization of the communicational message sent to the target audience. The company realizes that even though it operates with a global brand image, some of the marketing communications need to be adjusted for cultural differences. The localization of the marketing activities has helped Nike to become more effective in attracting the customers.
The matrix organizational structure is also followed at the sub-regional level. The employees have two reporting authorities, one from the functional department and the other from the product category. The diagram shown above clearly highlights the multiple reporting lines in the matrix organizational structure of Nike. These subsidiaries operate with certain degree of autonomy, which clearly mentioned boundaries. These subsidiaries take most of the decisions themselves, with authorization from the headquarters. However, in terms of localization of the marketing strategies, the regional or sub-regional intervention is present. The independence of decision making and operational autonomy allows these subsidiaries to function free from the strict control of the global and regional headquarters.
It is important to understand that each of these subsidiary brands appeal and cater to different groups of customers. Therefore, each of them will have to follow their own product development and marketing communication strategies. By this time, you should have got a clear idea of how the entire business operation is spread out in the organizational structure of Nike. This can help you to prepare your own paper on Nike without any essay writer help. The diagram above showcases the key individuals in operating in the global headquarters and are responsible for taking all the centralized decisions of the company. Marker, G. Social studies. Wayne Ross Popham, W. Establishing instructional goals.
International Journal of Social Education, 7 2 , 83— Teachers as curriculum theorizers. Ross Ed. Redrawing the lines: The case against traditional social stud- ies instruction. Ross Eds. New York: Falmer. Teacher personal the- orizing: Connecting curriculum practice, theory and research. Teacher personal theoriz- ing and research on teaching. Ross, J. McCutcheon Eds. Social studies: Wrong, right, or left? The Social Studies, 96 4—5. Sanders, D. The development of practical theories of teaching.
Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 2 1 , 50— Thornton, S. Teacher as curricular gatekeeper in social studies. Shaver Ed. Teaching social studies that matter. New York: Teachers Col- lege Press. Tyler, R. Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Wayne Ross The content of the social studies curriculum is the most inclusive of all school subjects. Given this, it is not surprising that social studies has been racked by intellectual battles over its purpose, content, and pedagogy since its inception as a school subject in the early part of the twentieth century: To top it off, even the historical accounts of the origins of the social stud- ies as a school subject are in dispute.
Three questions form the framework for this chapter: 1 What is the social studies curriculum? These may seem to be simple and straightforward questions, but as we shall see there is debate and controversy surrounding each. As each of the above questions is addressed, fundamental tensions and contradictions that underlie the social studies curriculum will be identi- fied. My intention is to present this series of tensions and contradictions as a heuristic for understanding the dynamic nature of the social studies. Wayne Ross the struggle over these contradictions that have shaped the nature of the social studies curriculum in the past and continue to fashion it today.
The first section of this chapter examines the origins and purposes of the social studies curriculum. The historical analysis presented in this sec- tion does not attempt to be exhaustive, but rather is intended as a context for understanding the contemporary social studies curriculum and cur- rent efforts to reform it. Both the contradictory origins of social studies in schools and the long-standing dispute over the relative emphasis of cul- tural transmission and critical thinking will be examined. The following section examines the question of curricular control with particular em- phasis on the historical tensions between curriculum centralization and grassroots curriculum development in the social studies.
The impact of standards-based, test-driven education reform on social studies curricu- lum is addressed in the next section. Social studies curriculum and in- struction cannot be considered in isolation. The teacher is the most critical element in the improvement and transformation of the social studies curriculum. In the final section of this chapter, the role of the so- cial studies teacher in relation to the curriculum is examined.
In this sec- tion, the role of teachers as curriculum conduits is contrasted with a more professional activist view of teachers as curriculum theorizers. What is the Social Studies Curriculum? Origins of Social Studies in School: Academic History, Social Improvement, Struggle for Justice Social studies in the broadest sense, that is, the preparation of young people so that they possess the knowledge, skills, and values necessary for active participation in society, has been a primary part of schooling in North America since colonial times.
The earliest laws establishing schools in the United States specified religious and moral instruction. In the Latin grammar schools of New England, instruction in catechism and Bible was the core of schooling, while geography and moral philosophy were also taught. Nationalistic education intended to develop loyal pa- triots replaced religion as the main purpose of social education following the American Revolution. As mentioned above, the origins of the contemporary social studies curricu- lum has recently become a flash point between advocates of a history-cen- tered social studies curriculum and those calling for a curriculum based on the interdisciplinary study of current social studies see Evans, Whelan suggests that both sides e.
Nonetheless, the contemporary social studies curriculum does have at least two sources: academic history and social im- provement. The tensions and contradictions inherent in the establish- ment of social studies in schools, while perhaps not as extreme as represented by some scholars, may still, however, help to explain the in- ternal conflict that has shaped the field since its beginnings. Disagree- ment over curricular issues in social studies has characterized the field since its birth and these disagreements and diversities of opinion regard- ing the nature, purpose, and organization of social studies have served to energize the field. Social educators have another history, one not directly connected to the emergence of social science disciplines and not launched by a series of committees.
Rather than highlighting a vested interest in the emer- gence of a professional group, there are voices in our history, which re- flect the struggle for social justice in and through education, often focusing on citizens in the midst of social struggle. Wayne Ross Noffke argues that debates over social studies have failed to acknowledge the widening gap between haves and have-nots and the racialized and gendered patterns of privilege and oppression, which to a large degree form the basis of U. Counts , sets out the social studies project as creating a new social order, one based on democracy and economic justice. The construction of social studies curricu- lum cannot be accomplished by a focusing on a universal, individual child.
Woodson, and W. DuBois, and in communities engaged in struggle for democracy and economic justice e. As Marker and Mehlinger note in their review of research on the social studies curriculum: [T]he apparent consensus on behalf of citizenship education is almost meaningless. Behind that totem to which nearly all social studies re- searchers pay homage lies continuous and rancorous debate about the purposes of social studies. The most influential of these was worked out by Barr, Barth, and Shermis , who grouped the various positions on the social studies curriculum into three themes: citizenship or cultural transmission, social science, and re- flective inquiry.
Morrissett and Haas used the categories of conser- vative cultural continuity, the intellectual aspects of history and the social sciences, and process of thinking reflectively. They argue that the key element in the dispute over the purpose of social studies in the school curriculum in- volves the relative emphasis given to cultural transmission or to critical or reflective thinking. When cultural transmission is emphasized, the intent is to use the social studies curriculum to promote social adaptation.
The emphasis is on teaching content, behaviors, and values that reflect views accepted by the traditional, dominant society. This approach is politically conservative, valuing stability and common standards of thought and be- havior. When critical or reflective thinking is emphasized the intent is to use the social studies curriculum to promote social transformation. The emphasis is on teaching content, behaviors, and values that question and critique standard views accepted by the dominant society. Wayne Ross action to lead to the reconstruction of society e. It is within the context of the tensions between the relative emphasis on transmission of the cultural heritage of the dominant society or the development of critical thought that the social studies curriculum has had a mixed history—predominately conservative in its purposes, but also at times incorporating progressive and even radical purposes.
Stan- ley and Nelson organize the variations in social studies curriculum and instruction into three broad and not necessarily opposing categories: subject-centered social studies, civics-centered social studies, and issues- centered social studies. Subject-centered approaches argue that the social studies curriculum derives its content and purposes from disciplines taught in higher educa- tion. Some advocates would limit social studies curriculum to the study of traditional history and geography while others would also include the tra- ditional social sciences e. The glue holding these various curricular views together is that each seeks to derive an organizing framework for the so- cial studies curriculum based upon disciplinary knowledge from higher education.
Some subject-centered advocates argue for cultural transmis- sion, without multiculturalism e. For both groups subject matter knowl- edge is paramount. Civics-centered social studies is concerned with individual and social attitudes and behaviors more than with subject matter knowledge. As within the subject-centered approach, there are a wide spectrum of views from in- culcating cultural traditions to promoting social action.
Views differ on the relative emphasis that should be given to uncritical loyalty, socially approved behaviors, and to social criticism and improvement, but they share the view that social studies is more than subject matter study and must be tied to civic competence e. Issues-centered approaches propose that social studies is the exami- nation of specific issues. Social as well as personal problems and contro- versies are the primary content of the curriculum. The views in this category range from personal development to social problems as the pur- pose of the social studies curriculum. Some advocates argue that social criticism or activism is the main reason for studying issues e. The three approaches to social studies described by Stanley and Nel- son are not necessarily separate or opposing.
Knowledge from the disci- plines is used in each; none disagrees that one purpose of the social studies is citizenship education; and each accepts social studies as a valuable con- struct. Who Controls the Social Studies Curriculum? Any response to this question hinges on a conception of curriculum. Indeed, even the curriculum commissions of the late nineteenth century recognized the crucial role of social studies teachers in achieving curricular goals. The formal curriculum is the explicit or official curriculum, embodied in published courses or study, state frameworks, textbooks, tests, and cur- riculum standards efforts e.
Wayne Ross harbored a tension between approaches that rely on centralized efforts leading to a standard curriculum and grassroots democratic efforts that provide greater involvement for teachers, parents, students, and other local curriculum leaders in determining what is worthwhile to know and experience. Curriculum centralization has resulted from three major in- fluences: legal decisions; policy efforts by governments, professional asso- ciations, and foundations; and published materials.
Examples of the latter two influences will be sketched below. Educational reform efforts in s attempted to define the nature of the school curriculum and featured efforts by both intellec- tual traditionalists e. Harris and Charles Eliot and developmen- talists e. The social studies curriculum has been heavily influenced by policies of curriculum centralization.
The current pattern of topics and courses for secondary social studies is largely the result of recommen- dations of the Committee see Marker, chapter 4 in this volume. Despite the changing demographics of school attendance the pat- tern of course offerings have remained relatively unchanged: K. Self, school, community, home 1. Families 2. Neighborhoods 3. Communities 4. State history, geographic regions 5.
United States history 6. World cultures, Western hemisphere 7. World geography or world history 8. United States history 9. World history United States history. American government Efforts to centralize the curriculum through government mandates also have a long history. Smith-Hughes fostered the transformation of the American high school from an elite institution into one for the masses by mandating that the states specify training needs, program prescriptions, standards and means for monitoring progress.
The dual system of education created by Smith-Hughes was reconceptualized in with the passage of the Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Act, which provided incen- tives for the development of work education programs that integrate aca- demic and vocational studies. This is an example of how local grassroots initiatives of people who know best the needs and characteristics of economically distressed communities can be effectively supported Wirth, Regents Examinations in New York State are one of the oldest examples of this approach.
These curriculum frameworks are intended to influence textbook pub- lishers and establish standards by which students, teachers, and schools will be assessed. Wayne Ross I have just hinted at the large-scale centralizing influence of educa- tion policies on curriculum. Resistance to curriculum centralization has always existed Ross, , c. There is a strong tradition of local school control in the U. Dewey argued that acquaintance with centralized knowledge must derive from situational concerns; that is, disciplinary knowledge must be attained by the inquiring student in ways that have meaning for her or him. William H. In the project method, students and teachers took on a greater role in determining the curriculum because they were deemed in the best position to understand the personal and contextual foundations from which a meaningful and relevant curriculum could be constructed.
Projects were pursued in small groups or as whole class experiences. Knowledge from the disciplines would be brought to bear on the pro- ject when it was perceived as relevant. The essence of the project re- quired that teachers and students develop the idea together. If students were fascinated by zoos, for instance all subjects traditional and mod- ern could be related to a deepened understanding of zoos. Schubert, , p. For more than seventy years teachers have relied on textbooks as a pri- mary instructional tool. In , Bagley found that American students spent a significant portion of their school day in formal mastery of text materials Bagley, cited in McCutcheon, The textbook industry is highly competitive and the industry is dominated by a small number of large corporations; as a result, textbook companies modify their products to qualify for adoption in one of these states.
James W. Loewen illustrates this at length in his analysis of U. For example, in a discussion of how history textbooks make white racism invisible, Loewen notes: Although textbook authors no longer sugarcoat how slavery affected African Americans, they minimize white complicity in it. They present slavery virtually as uncaused, a tragedy, rather than a wrong perpetrated by some people on others. However, in the way the textbooks structure their discussion, most of them inadvertently still take a white supremacist viewpoint. The archetype of African Americans as dependent on others begins. In reality, white violence, not black ignorance, was the key prob- lem during Reconstruction. Loewen, , p.
That year the National Defense Education Act helped to import disciplinary specialists to design curriculum packages for schools. In the social studies, these cur- riculum innovations were collectively called the New Social Studies. Although social studies specialists helped in the development of New Social Studies materials, the curricular focus was on the academic disciplines. Wayne Ross experts in academic disciplines, viewed teachers as implementers not active partners in the creation of classroom curriculum. While the development and dissemination of the curriculum pro- jects in the s were well funded, they failed to make a major impact on classroom practices. In contrast, proponents of grassroots democracy in curriculum offered the expla- nation that the failure was due to the blatant disregard of teachers and students in curriculum decision making.
This is especially ironic inas- much as those who promoted inquiry methods with the young ne- glected to allow inquiry by teachers and students about matters most fundamental to their growing lives, that is, inquiry about that which is most worthwhile to know and experience. Curriculum Standards It is clear that government-driven curriculum centralization efforts i. The standards movement is a massive effort at curriculum centralization. Virtually all of the subject- matter-based professional education groups have undertaken the creation of curriculum standards.
Encouraged by the positive response to the de- velopment of standards for the mathematics curriculum and the availabil- ity of federal funding for such projects, social studies educators have taken up the development of curriculum standards with unparalleled zeal. The Struggle for the Social Studies Curriculum 29 Because the aim of these projects is to create a national educational system with uniform content and goals the ongoing debates and divisions within the field of social studies has intensified.
The standards-based cur- riculum movement is a rationalized managerial approach to issues of curriculum development and teaching that attempts to define curricular goals, design assessment tasks based on these goals, set standards for the content of subject matter areas and grade level, and test students and re- port the results to the public. The intent is to establish standards for con- tent and student performance levels. The primary tension in curriculum reform efforts, today and histori- cally, is between centralized and grassroots decision making. When there are multiple participants and competing interests in the curriculum- making process, the question arises, where does control reside?
The standards-based curriculum movement in social studies represents an effort by policy elites to standardize the content and much of the practice of education e. Operationally curriculum- standards projects in social studies are anti-democratic because they se- verely restrict the legitimate role of teachers and other educational pro- fessionals, as well as members of the public, from participating in the conversation about the origin, nature and ethics of knowledge taught in the social studies curriculum. Resources that might have been directed to assisting teachers to become better decision makers have instead been channeled into a program dedicated to the de- velopment of schemes for preventing teachers from making curricular de- cisions.
The circumstances described above leads to the final question addressed in this chapter. A fundamental assumption of most cur- riculum-centralization efforts is that means instruction can be separated from the ends curricular goals and objectives. Many teachers have inter- nalized the means-ends distinction between their pedagogy and the cur- riculum. As a result, they view their professional role as instructional decision makers not as curriculum developers Thornton, Wayne Ross What is clear from studies of teacher decision making, however, is that teachers do much more than select teaching methods to implement formally adopted curricular goals.
As Thornton argues, teacher beliefs about social studies subject matter and student thinking in social studies, as well as planning and instructional strategies, together function to cre- ate the enacted curriculum of the classroom—the day-to-day interactions among students, teachers and subject matter. The difference between the publicly declared formal curriculum and the curriculum experienced by students in social studies classrooms is considerable.
This is not to say that social studies classes are not affected by factors such as the characteristics of the students enrolled, but only to emphasize that the teacher plays the primary structuring role. Teachers are actively in- volved in shaping the culture of schooling. This example illustrates the importance of focusing on the develop- ment of the enacted curriculum instead of the formal curriculum.
There are three possible roles for teachers in curriculum implemen- tation Ben-Peretz, This view of teachers was adopted at the turn of the twentieth century as history was becoming established as a school subject. Arthur Schlesinger Sr. This is clearly not a desirable role for professional teachers. The New Social Studies is an exemplar of this role for the teacher. Teachers were viewed as active implementers but not as full partners in the creation of the curriculum.
A third and most desirable role for teachers is as curriculum user- developers. From this perspective teachers are assumed to be full part- ners in development of the enacted curriculum. Teacher inquiry is a key element in the success of the curriculum because it is inquiry directed at discovering curriculum potential that leads to the change and transfor- mation of formal curriculum materials, and most importantly the devel- opment of new alternatives that are best suited for circumstances the teacher is working within. The current standards-based curriculum movement highlights the contradiction between the views of teachers as active implementers or as user-developers.
Ultimately, however, curriculum improvement depends on teachers being more thoughtful about their work see Cornett et al. The most effective means of improving the curriculum is to improve the education and professional development afforded teachers. Teachers need to be better prepared to exercise the curricular decision-making re- sponsibilities that are an inherent part of instructional practice. Early in this century John Dewey identified the intellectual subservience of teach- ers as a central problem facing progressive educators in their efforts to im- prove the curriculum.
Dewey saw the solution to the problem as the development of teaching as professional work. Prospective teachers, Dewey argued: should be given to understand that they not only are permitted to act on their own initiative, but that they are expected to do so and that their ability to take hold of a situation for themselves would be a more important factor in judging them than their following any particular set methods or scheme.
Dewey, , pp. Conclusion In this chapter I have posed three fundamental questions about the social studies curriculum: 1 What is the social studies curriculum? In responding to these ques- tions I identified a series of tensions and contradiction that have shaped the field of social studies historically and that still affect it today. In response to the first question I identified the tension between the study of academic history and efforts of social meliorists as setting the stage for a long-standing conflict between advocates of subject-centered and civics- or issue-centered social studies. In addition, it was argued that the purposes of the social studies curriculum have essentially been de- fined by the relative emphasis given to cultural transmission or critical thinking in the curriculum.
The second question led to an examination of the long-standing ten- sions between curriculum centralization and grassroots curriculum de- velopment. The recent standards-based curriculum movement was discussed in this section and used as a bridge to the consideration of the final question regarding the role of the social studies teacher in relation to the curriculum.
In the closing section I argued that teachers are the key element in curriculum improvement and that curriculum change in the social studies will only be achieved through the improved education and professional development opportunities for teachers. My intention has been to present this series of tensions and contra- dictions as a heuristic for understanding the dynamic nature of the social studies. It would be a mistake to treat them as definitive oppositionals, however; it is the struggles over these contradictions that have shaped the nature of the social studies curriculum in the past and continues to define it today.
Notes 1. The balance of this section draws directly upon Ross, E. I am indebted to the work of William H. Schubert for the historical analysis in this sec- tion. See Schubert, W. Historical perspective on centralizing the cur- riculum. Klein Ed. This section draws upon Ross, E. Teachers and texts. New York: Routledge. Apple, M. The politics of the textbook. Barr, R. Defining the social studies. Ben-Peretz, M. The teacher-curriculum encounter. Black, H. The American schoolbook. New York: William Morrow.
Bowler, M. The making of a textbook. Learning, 6, 38— Brooks, M. Centralized curriculum: Effects on the local school level. American Historical Association. The study of his- tory in schools. National Education Association. Report of the committee on secondary school studies. The so- cial studies in secondary education. Cornbleth, C. The great speckled bird. New York: St. Cornett, J.
W Cornett, and G. Mc- Cutcheon Eds. Counts, G. Dare the school build a new social order. New York: John Day. The relation of theory to practice in education, In The relation of theory to practice in the education of teachers: Third yearbook of the National Soci- ety for the Scientific Study of Education, part I. Engle, S. Decision making: The heart of social studies instruction. Social Education, 24 7 , —, Education for democratic citizenship: Decision making in the social studies. Fullinwider, R. Philosophical inquiry and social studies. Gabbard, D. Defending public schools: Education under the security state. Westport, CT: Praeger. Hunt, M. Teaching high school social studies: Problems in reflective thinking and social understanding.
Wayne Ross Hursh, D. Democratic social education: Social stud- ies for social change. Kesson, K. Kilpatrick, W. The project method. Kincheloe, J. Cultural studies and democratically aware teacher education: Post-Fordism, civics, and the worker-citizen. Kleibard, H. The struggle for the American — 3rd Ed. Kohlberg, L. Moral development and the new social studies. Social Edu- cation, 14 1 , 35— The cognitive-developmental approach to moral education. Phi Delta Kappan, 56 10 , — Krug, E. The shaping of the American high school, — Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Leming, J. Where did social studies go wrong? Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Foundation. Loewen, J. Lies my teacher told me. New York: New Press.
Longstreet, W. Citizenship: The phantom core of social studies cur- riculum. Theory and Research in Social Education, 13 2 , 21— W Jackson Ed. Mathison, S. Implementing curricular change through state-mandated testing: Ethical issues. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 6, — Defending public schools: The nature and limits of standards-based reform and assessment. McCutchen, S. A discipline for the social studies. Social Education, 52, — McCutcheon, G. Developing the curriculum. White Plains, NY: Longman. Morrissett, I. Rationales, goals, and objective in social stud- ies. National Council for the Social Studies. Expectations of excellence: Curricu- lum standards for social studies. Washington, DC: Author. Newmann, F. Clarifying public controversy: An Approach to teaching social stud- ies.
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