Labeo Umbratus Lab Report

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Labeo Umbratus Lab Report

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Experiment 2: Cell Staining

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However, high SRT does not necessarily mean better removal performance. The variation of the sludge age between 10 and 60 80 days showed no noticeable effects on removal efficiency of the investigated pharmaceuticals. High SRT 20 days also seemed not to appreciably affect the biodegradation of bisphenol. Also application of low SRTs 1. The study of effect of sludge retention time on endocrine disrupter sorption and their biodegradation during activated sludge treatment showed that SRT did not affect the sorption potential of triclosan TCS and bisphenol A BPA , while higher sorption constants were observed for 4-n-nonylphenol 4-n-NP at SRT of 20 days.

Redox conditions may cause the observed differences by having an effect on certain wastewater or sludge characteristics as well as on the biodiversity of the microbial flora present Luo et al. The study of the effect of HRT on wastewater treatment and removal of pharmaceuticals, hormones, and phenolic utility substances showed that the strength of the effect of HRT on the removal efficiency of single substances varied, but all substances except for carbamazepine were removed more efficiently with increasing HRT. Carbamazepine showed negative removal values, and it was consequently not 1.

The strongest dependency of the removal efficiency to HRT is equal to the steepest slope highest calculated slope applying a first-order linear relationship. The removal of propranolol was most strongly dependent on HRT slope 5 31, R2 5 0. These results showed that HRT had effects on the structures of bacteria communities and the changes of bacterial communities. It was observed that a hydraulic retention time of 7 days was critical for increased removal efficiencies of Ketoprofen and Naproxen in large active sludge WWTPs Ejhed et al.

The overall average removal efficiency of all pharmaceuticals and hormones showed a strong first-order linear relationship with HRT. Results showed that onsite wastewater treatment facilities would remove micropollutants more efficiently if the HRT was increased from 2—3 to 4—6 days. However, the relationship between removal efficiency and HRT can be a seen as a pseudo-first-order relationship. Increased HRT may affect several processes in wastewater treatment, that is, increasing possible nitrification and denitrification processes by reducing ammonium and total nitrogen in the effluent or enhancing sludge and particle removal that would result in reduced turbidity in the effluent.

There was an overall weak, but positive correlation between the removal of Ntot and turbidity with HRT. The removal of ammonium and total phosphorous was dependent on the type of technique activated sludge or phosphorous filter , and a there was no obvious relationship between removal of these substances and the hydraulic retention time Ejhed et al. Redox condition The unfavorable redox conditions anaerobic conditions could result in inefficient biodegradation of some EMPs.

In another study, naproxen, ethinylestradiol, roxithromycin, and erythromycinwere found only considerably eliminated under aerobic condition, and anoxic removal was much less effective when compared to short term biodegradation of clofibric acid, ibuprofen, and diclofenac in oxic and anoxic denitrification conditions, absence of oxygen while presence of nitrate biofilm reactor. Anoxic redox conditions were not necessarily less favorable environments for micropollutant removal. For instance anoxic conditions could lead to improved elimination of iodinated X-ray contrast media, while aerobic environments 15 16 CHAPTER 1 Introduction witnessed minor removal. PH pH can be a contributing factor to the dissolution of micropollutants.

In addition, optimum pH is essential to maintain the enzymatic activity of microbes, which is a dark horse for EMPs removal in aquatic environments. The change in pH of sewage may have a negative effect on EMPs removal. Nevertheless, pH has different impacts on the sorption mechanism. Depending on the value of dissociation constant pKa of micropollutants, cation or anion formation can occur. Cations can easily interact with the negatively charged sludge surface through van der Waalstype attractions. On the contrary, anions show poor interaction with the sludge surface.

Certain ionization EMPs such as ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and sulfamethoxazole were reported as being strongly pH dependent Varjani et al. The acid dissociation constants pKa of micropollutants vary according to their molecular structure. Ionizable chemicals are converted to either cations or anions depending on their pKa and pH in solution. Hydrophilic compounds easily interact with water by polar—polar interaction. This phenomenon can cause adsorption of the ionized micropollutants on the activated carbon surface due to electrostatic interactions. It was examined the effect of pH on adsorption removal of selected micropollutants. The adsorption of hydrophobic compounds was not affected by pH.

Among the hydrophobic micropollutants, cetaminophen, exhibited the highest removal rate In contrast, adsorption of hydrophilic compounds with the exception of caffeine was significantly affected by pH. Electrostatic and specific sorbate—sorbent interactions between micropollutants and activated carbon surfaces may affect the adsorption of hydrophilic compounds Nam et al. The modest pH variation had significant effects on the removal of acidic pharmaceuticals clofibric acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, and mefenamic acid by the biosolids, which was presumably ascribed to activation of enzymes involved or enhancement of affinity between the biosolids and pharmaceuticals due to protonation of acidic pharmaceuticals.

Temperature Temperature also plays an important role. However, temperature variation has been observed in winter and summer, which also affects biodegradation. For example, some compounds such as sulfamethoxazole exhibited almost similar removal characteristics in both summer and winter seasons, and specific compounds such as trimethoprim and roxithromycin show higher removal in summer. Actually, 1. For example, minor changes in climate of North Island of New Zealand did not produce noticeable differences in temperature throughout the year. Another study also reported about 65 percent antibiotic removal in summer. Adsorption and biodegradation were the predominate mechanisms in MBRs and higher temperatures in summer supported biodegradation. Temperature variation can affect biodegradation and partition sorption and volatilization of EMPs.

To eliminate the seasonal effect, alteration of operation parameters can be taken into consideration. Generally enhanced EMPs removal can be achieved at warmer temperature due to promoted microbial activities. Some other studies showed that EMPs elimination was independent of temperature fluctuation Luo et al. There is no specific treatment technology able to remove all EMPs types in WTPs and WWTPs due to their different behavior during treatments and climate change hot seasons to cold seasons Verlicchi et al. The efficiency of a conventional WWTP varies depending on the characteristics of the pollutant and on the treatment process employed. The upgrading of the treatment processes for effluents generated by conventional WWTPs might minimize the discharge of micropollutants into the receiving 17 18 CHAPTER 1 Introduction waters and can even improve the overall quality status of effluents for possible reuse Hollender et al.

Transformation of EMPs into less harmful or mineral compounds is one of the promising strategies to achieve the upgrading of the treatment processes. An overview of the current treatment options is present in the following sections to reveal the performance of each technique for EMPs removal and to identify the need for improvement. Totally most EMPs is removed during coagulation flocculation processes, except some musks, a few pharmaceuticals e.

In addition, temperature and coagulant dose do not have significantly effect on amount of EMPs removal during coagulation flocculation processes. For example, hydrophobic compounds are better removed in water sources with high fat content. The elimination of some pharmaceutical diclofenac, ibuprofen, and bezafibrat it better done by the presence of dissolved humic acid. On the contrary, the presence of dissolved organic matters DOM with low molecular weight can possibly inhibit the micropollutant removal due to the preferential removal of DOM through coagulation.

Negative charge DOM might react with positive charge aluminum hydrolysis species, resulting in a less dose coagulant available for EMPs removal Luo et al. Also removal efficiency of. Either higher dose or longer contact time can probably result in greater removal of EMPs. Considerable removals of steroidal estrogens from sewage effluent have been observed during the GAC tertiary treatment. By comparison, the reduction of pharmaceutical concentrations under granular activated carbon more variable.

Similar to PAC, the contact time is a major factor that affects the degree of adsorption. Short contact time is likely to lead to significantly lowered adsorption efficiency. Broader micropore size distribution of the GAC leads to more efficient adsorption of EMPs with different shapes and sizes. Pore volume is more important to adsorption capacity than specific area, and larger pore volume was commonly associated with greater removal efficiency. Negatively charged EMPs are likely to be poorly adsorbed by the negatively charged carbon and well adsorbed by the positively charged carbon, and adsorption capacity reduced with operation year. In general efficient removal is potentially achievable when the compounds have nonpolar characteristics Kow. However, AC efficacy might be significantly lowered by the presence of natural organic matter NOM which competes for binding sides, thereby resulting in blocked pores.

To solve this problem, ozonation and advanced oxidation processes AOPs can be favorable options. Ozonation and AOPs are effective redox mechanisms which reveal more advantages high degradation rates and nonselectivity than conventional treatments. The reductions of DEET and metoprolol were modest. The process showed considerable removal efficiency. This feature is associated with their electron-rich groups such as olefins and activated aromatic, olefins, phenols, and anilines Gerrity et al.

For the more reactions with target compounds, a greater amount of O3 can be used. UV alone could significantly remove. But addition of H2O2 7. Increasing H2O2 dosage and reaction time under the Photo-Fenton process had positive effect on the removal efficiency. This process is able to reduce 48 out of 52 compounds than its limitation of detection. Because under oxidation processes, EMPs mineralization do not completely occur, the formation of by-products is the major concern associated with these processes Klamerth et al. In comparison with parent compounds, by-products compounds show the lower estrogenic and antimicrobial activities Hollender et al. To overcome this problem, biological postfiltration sand filtration or AC filtration can be suggested Luo et al.

Rodriguez-Narvaez et al. The retention of compounds depends on their nature and is strongly influenced by the applied membrane material, the overall compounds of the raw water, and the process conditions Hofman et al. NOM substances with high molecular weight such as humic acid shows greater effects on removal efficiency of EMPs than the lower molecular weight compounds Jermann et al. The removal efficiency of NF membranes is very similar to that conducted by RO membranes. MBR has many advantages including the high effluent quality, excellent microbial separation ability, absolute control of SRTs and HRTs, high biomass content and less sludge bulking problem, low-rate sludge production, small footprint and limited space requirement, and possibilities for a flexible and phased extension of existing WWTPs.

MBRs are able to effectively remove a wide spectrum of EMPs including compounds that are resistant to activate sludge processes. The removal of EMPs in MBR can be affected by a number of factors, such as sludge age and concentration, existence of anoxic and anaerobic compartments, composition of the wastewater, operating temperatures, pH, and conductivity Luo et al. During MBR processes, several operational parameters e. In general, MBRs have high SRTs, thus diverse microorganisms, including some slow growing bacterial, can reside in the reactors.

When biomass is rich in nitrifying bacteria, higher biodegradation efficiency for certain EMPs can be achieved. The degradation of EMPs by nitrifying bacteria has also been evaluated in other types of systems e. A general conclusion drawn from these studies is that nitrifying conditions have positive effects on EMPs removal. Temperature variability has been linked to decrease in bulk water quality parameters and unreliability of system, as microbial growth and activity as well as solubility and other physicochemical properties of organics are significantly affected by temperature.

Both hydrophobic compounds logD. The advantages and challenges of different processes for the removal of EMPs are shown in Table 1. But these integrated systems are not cost effective and energy saving. However, if the EMPs environmental impact is considered, this cost might be acceptable. The application of specific enzymes by using MBR could be an alternative to remove some refractory compounds such as carbamazepine, diclofenac, clofibric acid, SMX, and erythromycin. In addition, the use of enzymes instead of microorganisms plays a crucial role to reduce developing bacteria resistant to EMPs. Posttreatment could be used to reduce the toxicity generated by the enzyme and the mediator.

Due to enzyme and mediator cost, the use of enzymatic membrane reactor EMR at large scale is limited. To overcome this problem, the use of immobilized enzyme in a biocatalytic membrane reactor BMR is suggested. Because of seasonal difference and unsuitable disposal of EMPs from homes and hospitals, the EPS level in the wastewater may be increased. To reduce the EMPs entry into water bodies, some changes are essential.

The return of expired or unused EMPs back to the pharmacies can be accepted as regulation. Moreover an acceptable household strategy for disposal of drugs based on their labels may help to safe disposal of these compounds. Further studies are required in this field. Due to more complication of ESP fouling than other fouling, control MBR fouling is not effective by methodologies such as aeration, low flux operations, and aggressive cleaning. To overcome this problem, influent characteristics, pretreatments, operating conditions, membrane type morphology, charge, roughness, hydrophobicity, and electrostatic interactions should be considered.

Besides, the development of new method may reduce energy consumption and cost of fouling control. EMPs alone or in combination with biological systems can affect microbial activities. Exposure to especially high concentrations of EMPs that come from special locations like hospital sewage lead to a greater shift in the structure of the sludge communities Besha et al. A shift in microbial community structure might be characterized by appearance or disappearance of a certain group of bacteria from the wastewater when exposed to chemical stress. Because of the presence of EMPs, microbial community structural shifts are already reported in several literatures Kraigher et al. In the presence of EMPs, microorganism may be clustered together or dispersed, and hence microbial community structural shifts Besha et al.

Microbial community in the activated sludge responds to new environment conditions to adapt with it. It is found that EMPs ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, diclofenac, and clofbric acid had a stronger effect on the microbial community structure. Respirometric analysis helps to study the microbial activity of the sludge in the presence of EMPs. The presence of EMPs may affect on the respiration rate as an index for microbial activity and the activated sludge properties Alvarino et al. The few monitoring efforts conducted at a larger scale, such as the river basin wide international exercises in the Danube or Elbe Rivers for water, the EMEP network for ambient air, or the LUCAS soil survey are related to the policies made for a single environmental compartment.

But EMPs as many other toxicants are detected in the multi environments. Mono compartmental policies and the noncomprehensive monitoring schemes cannot provide the full picture on the exchange and transformation dynamics between all environments and EMPs Geissen et al. Detection, identification, and quantification of EMPs and their by-products in the various environmental compartments are essential for obtaining knowledge on their occurrence and fate. This is highly challenging for several reasons: the number of currently known potential EMPs is very high.

The variety in concentration of EMPs and changes in their characteristics with time in aquatic environments can be a challenge for quality control of water bodies. In recent years generic chemical screening approaches based on chromatography with full scan mass spectrometry have become increasingly popular to complement or replace existing targeted methods Geissen et al. Based on these models and depending on their properties, fate of EMPs can be predicted under different processes such as runoff, erosion, or leaching and entering to groundwater or surface water. It is possible that some EMPs is captured in soil by adsorption process and never reached to water bodies.

Although modeling EMPs fate in watershed scale has been conducted by some studies, it is necessary to predict EMPs fate at the interface with different media environments including water, particles and chemicals compounds in soil, groundwater, and surface water. Because environmental properties have impact on EMPs concentration in an environment, the calculation of EMPs concentration is different for the unsaturated soil, saturated groundwater, and surface water Geissen et al. It can hide some more toxic by-products than their parent compounds Pomies et al. Amount of EMPs transport and accumulation in watershed under different situation can be assessed by parameterized models.

In other words, model simulations should provide the discharge and chemical fluxes at the outlets, which can then be postprocessed to infer the distribution so travel times for EMPs in the aquatic bodies Geissen et al. In other chapters, the types of EMPs along with their challenges in aquatic environments will be described Fig. Although production of new EMPs are shifting to growing economies worldwide, integrated safety management of EMPs by new technology, risk assessment methods, in situ and ex situ conservation strategies, and remediation technologies are necessary. For this reason, several factors must be taken into account: EMPs category and characteristics, EMPs concentration, EMPs risk assessment for environment and living organisms, and available resources and using developed methods to predict the fate of EMPs in aquatic environments.

Also consumer education, minimize emerging micropollutants waste in places of production and consumption, government regulation, none disposal of EMPs in drains or toilets, medical innovation proper disposal after use and effective filtration in wastewater facilities could be employed to management of EMPs entering into water bodies. The results of this References chapter along with future results will lead to future regulations and standards for management and control of risk effects of EMPs. In practical terms, obtained results will help to the knowledge of EMPs in aquatic environment and develop significant solutions to fill the gap faced in aquatic environments. References Alvarino, T.

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Health, Part. A 50, 40 Virkutyte, J. Treatment of Micropollutants in Water and Wastewater. IWA Publishing. Wanda, E. Wang, Y. Direct and indirect photolysis of seven micropollutants in secondary effluent from a wastewater lagoon. Williamson, R. Gathering danger: the urgent need to regulate toxic substances that can bioaccumulate. LQ 20, Zepp, R. Rates of direct photolysis in aquatic environment. It is estimated that the use of pharmaceuticals will reach billion doses by Aitken and Kleinrock, Unfortunately the pharmaceuticals overuse is very common that not only leads to health care costs and negative consequences on societies and individuals but also leads to the increased resistance of infectious microorganisms to many antibiotics in human and veterinary Sangion and Gramatica, It was approved that humans apply around 10, pharmaceuticals with up to ingredients.

Between and , the rate of pharmaceuticals consumption has been increased, and the most consumption has been attributed to cholesterollowering drugs Stadlmair et al. The international market has showed substantial regional differences in the use of pharmaceuticals, influenced by economic status, health requirements, capacity for local manufacture, and legal restrictions. In accordance with this pattern, the detection of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has predominantly been reported in the developed world USA, EU, Japan, and Australia Corcoran et al. Also some reports from India and China show high pharmaceutical concentrations discharged into aquatic environments Balakrishna et al. Generally there is a positive correlation between the most frequently used classes of pharmaceutical and their detection in the aquatic environment.

Many of the top pharmaceuticals sold in the USA and the UK are in drug classes used to treat diseases associated with westernized society: for example, maintaining cholesterol balance, combating mental illness, treating stress, ulcers, asthma, etc. Paralleling this usage, these therapeutic classes are the most commonly detected pharmaceuticals in both WWTPs effluents and surface water Corcoran et al. According to German consumption data in , many existing substances are produced in high amounts, such as metformin 1. Also German consumption data of the past 10 years additionally show that the volume of these compounds may still heavily increase.

As an example between and the consumption of metformin and IBU in Germany increased from to t and from to t, respectively. Many of the existing substances have been detected in the environment Kuster and Adler, Based on one report, worldwide pharmaceuticals consumption will reach 4. Also antibiotics consumption alone reached in Although the unique global increase of pharmaceuticals is referred to one of the greatest benefits of health in society, it has also been paralleled by discharge of these compounds in natural environment and ecosystem Garrison, Nowadays pharmaceuticals are known as emerging micropollutants EMPs in environment Snyder et al.

First during the Catchment Quality Control CQC in US, it was found that pharmaceutical compounds can enter the water bodies by two main routes: the industrial and the domestic routes Garrison, Pharmaceutical contaminants differ from most other contaminants based on: a having molecular masses , Da, although larger for some compounds, b containing chemically complex molecules with a large variety of structures, shapes, molecular masses, and functionalities, and c consisting of polar compounds having more than one ionizable group. They also share f the ability to persist in nature, accumulate in life forms, and remain biologically active. For example, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin can persist for almost one-year while clofibric acid can remain unchanged for multiple years.

Finally g these molecules tend to adsorb and be distributed in a living body, which metabolically modifies their chemical structure Patel et al. O Unlike traditional chemical pollutants, medicines are bioactive compounds, designed to be effective at very low concentrations, and they are continuously discharged in natural ecosystems, potentially affecting aquatic species. Scientific investigations suggested that pharmaceuticals have the capability to interfere with biota at very low concentrations, but these substances are not routinely monitored in environments Mezzelani et al.

Pharmaceutically active compounds PhACs found in the both human and veterinary drugs include a mixture of parent and metabolite compounds. These active ingredients are usually more polar and hydrophilic than the original compounds. They can reach to the aquatic environments by different routes such as human excretion, disposal of unused and expired drugs, agricultural, and livestock practices. Their continuous discharge into the aquatic environment may cause adverse effects on living organisms and the environment for instance, it can induce behavioral changes in fish, affecting fish aggression, reproduction, and feeding activity Mandaric et al.

Therefore due to their environmental side effects in aquatic and terrestrial environments, in flora, biota, and human health, during the past three decades, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment has received increased scientific attention Kalyva, ; Kuster and Adler, Although, for safety and efficacy aspects, strict regulations and controls are derived by pharmaceutical companies and institutions such as Food and Drug Administration FDA or the EMA Debaveye et al. Based on the review of priority substances in surface water bodies, diclofenac DIC , ethinylestradiol EE2 , and beta-estradiol had widespread use on the European monitoring list.

Zenker et al. Increasing scientific and technology knowledge on effects of environmental pharmaceuticals was led to that EMA and European Parliament approved guidelines and legislation on environmental risks assessment of pharmaceuticals. This concept emphasized on the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects of the presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment, which affect both human and the other animal species Mezzelani et al. It is clear that these mentioned pharmaceuticals are only examples of the large variety of substances that can impact the quality of the water bodies and the environment Zenker et al. Pharmaceuticals with basic features pKa. These compounds tend to accumulate in biota bioaccumulation Zenker et al.

Biologically active compounds existed in pharmaceuticals may lead to their adverse effects on the wildlife so-called nontarget organisms. Pharmaceutical occurrence in environment is a reason for scientific challenges to prevent the increase of negative impacts and provide the good quality standards Sangion and Gramatica, An ERA refers to acute toxic risk occurred in the aquatic environment. This risk calculated based on the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration PEC of the compounds, and the highest predicted no-effect concentration PNEC of these compounds.

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