Case Analysis: Cushing Oklahoma

Tuesday, April 12, 2022 11:26:58 AM

Case Analysis: Cushing Oklahoma



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The Importance of Cushing Oklahoma

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Those treaties are binding to this day, and we expect them to be honored. Rather than honoring these legal obligations, the United States has chosen to blatantly violate them. When they entered into treaties with the United States, the tribal nations meant to protect their natural resources water, grasslands, and game and keep people from crossing their lands. The pipeline approval violates both of these provisions.

They are proposing to do so without the tribal consent required under the treaty law. The Tribes argue that the permit, which would allow a Canadian company TransCanada to build another dirty tar sand crude pipeline across American soil, also creates a substantial risk of. The United States must answer to the Tribes for violations of the treaties and be instructed to honor them. Neither the president nor wealthy foreign corporations are above the laws of our country. In that case, brought by a coalition of environmental organizations, the District Court had decided that the federal government did not follow the law when it issued its permit for the pipeline. The District Court blocked pipeline construction until the government and TC Energy met those legal requirements.

All construction was stopped. With the original permit revoked, the Ninth Circuit yesterday decided to dismiss as moot the case based on that original permit. The injunction blocking KXL construction has now been lifted. However, for the Tribes, the KXL fight is just beginning. Regardless of the new permit and political maneuvering, the President is required to honor the treaties and the Constitution. And TC Energy still must abide by federal and tribal law. The case is now up to the Tribes, and they will not allow a foreign company to break American law, take land that does not belong to them, ignore the voices and laws of the tribal citizens, and destroy an aquifer that feeds millions of Americans. It is the largest underground water source in the United States.

Want to do something to help the tribes and protect the Ogalalla Aquifer? Donate now. May 28 and 29, Although, TransCanada, now known as TC Energy, has said that it has lost the construction season for the KXL pipeline, the company has asked the courts to lift the current injunction so that they can immediately begin to build their man-camps and pipe-yards. TC Energy has indicated it will be looking at a very ambitious construction season to make up for the lost time, as well. The location of this two-day hearing is the St.

Together with the Fort Belknap Indian Community, we brought a lawsuit to stop the construction of the Keystone XL pipeline through our territories. We have been mistreated in this process, and TC Energy has never sought or obtained our consent to build a pipeline in our territory, including on lands held in trust by the United States. In granting a permit for the pipeline, the President has ignored his obligation to protect the Rosebud Sioux Tribe in direct violation of the Fort Laramie Treaties of and , ignored federal right of way and mineral statutes, and ignored basic principles of federal Indian law.

Once resubmitted, the U. State Department did not bother to seek any new information or public comment, but instead quickly granted TC Energy a permit. Now, after the courts have told the United States it must follow the law, President Trump has attempted to circumvent the courts by issuing a new permit. Like that of the United States, the Rosebud Sioux Tribe also has laws that require us to ensure that any company seeking to build a pipeline in our territory must obtain our consent.

We must ensure our people are safe, and that the economic security, health, welfare, and general well-being of Rosebud and our members are protected. TC Energy must follow the law, and that includes our laws and regulations with respect to the construction of this pipeline. To that end, the Rosebud Sioux Tribal Utility Commission will be holding a public hearing on Tuesday, May 28, , and Wednesday, May 29, , to address the Keystone XL pipeline and its impacts on our territory and people.

We invite anyone interested in providing testimony to attend. For those of you that will not be able to attend, I ask that you submit a letter about your concerns and in support of our lawsuit. The lands, water, and promises made in those treaties were paid for, literally, with the blood of our ancestors and relatives. Trump formerly Rosebud Sioux Tribe v. US Dept of State. The judge found that the US State Department had not fulfilled its duties to the American people when it issued TransCanada a permit for the Keystone XL pipeline without the required environmental and safety review.

They prohibited any construction until the Trump Administration and TransCanada conduct the necessary review. President Trump did not like these decisions. The new complaint in Rosebud Sioux Tribe v. President Trump is now a defendant and the case is now called Rosebud et al v. Trump, et al. The Tribes filed this amended complaint 1 to stop the President from trying to circumvent the court and 2 to add claims against TC Energy Corp. The Native American Rights Fund is prepared to fight to ensure those treaties are honored and the water is protected. Importantly, the new complaint also calls on President Trump to protect Native American people. In addition to extensive violations of law outlined in the original complaint , the new complaint raises the following issues:.

The Treaty of Ft. Laramie and other federal laws requires Rosebud consent to cross Rosebud territory. Rosebud has land use, environmental, and utilities codes that apply, and TransCanada must comply with Rosebud law on Rosebud land. TransCanada agreed to abide by tribal law. Fort Belknap has a Cultural Property Act that applies to the pipeline. TransCanada failed to comply with Rosebud and Fort Belknap law. New climate change information requires a new environmental impact analysis.

Recent governmental reports contain new data about climate change, which necessitates new analysis. The federal government must examine potential impacts on the safety and welfare of Native people—especially women and children. An influx of itinerant workers, like those required for pipeline man-camps, correlates with increased sexual assaults, domestic violence, and sexual trafficking. The federal government has a treaty obligation to protect tribal citizens likely to suffer increased rates of violence and abuse. In an unprecedented action, President Trump has attempted to circumvent the law by issuing TransCanada yet another presidential permit for the Keystone XL pipeline.

This new permit is a blatant attempt to avoid any environmental analysis for the pipeline that United States law and courts have required. The Tribes are entitled to protect the health and welfare of their people and territory and to ensure that their treaties are upheld. The Native American Rights Fund and our clients will continue to fight to ensure our treaties are upheld and that the health and welfare of our people is protected.

The spill, more than , gallons of unprocessed crude, is the seventh largest on-shore spill since While TransCanada replaced topsoil and reseeded the area affected by the spill, it will take decades for the lasting damage of the spill to be known and remedied. Last month, the Keystone base pipeline spilled in Missouri; while the spill was caught early and a small amount of crude was lost, the fact that it spilled speaks volumes to the safety of such projects going forward. The KXL phase of the pipeline cuts directly through the traditional homelands of our client tribes.

In addition, the possibility of damaging community water supplies, valuable agricultural lands, and wildlife habitats is not a cost our clients are willing to bear on behalf of a foreign extractive company propping up a dying energy industry. The cost is too high. President Bordeaux had this to say about the KXL pipeline:. Some of the current concerns are rooted in our responsibility to take care of Unci Maka , which is grandmother earth.

As you know, our natural resources are finite. Once they are gone and depleted, they are gone. Choose life, choose water, choose to be a Modern Day Warrior. Department of State case regarding the federal permit for the Keystone XL pipeline. See our request for intervention. Today, as in the past, the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and the Fort Belknap Indian Community drink the water that comes from the rivers and the ground sources to provide for their communities.

The water has been there to support the people on their ancestral lands since time immemorial. We cannot allow another pipeline to be constructed, dangerously close to yet another tribal community, for the benefit of a foreign energy company. In addition to the intervention, a hearing has been scheduled in Rosebud Sioux Tribe et al v. United States Department of State et al. NARF and our clients are confident in our claims against the construction of the pipeline, and we are optimistic the court will not allow this case to be dismissed. See our original complaint filed. Bulldozers were seen this week grading the land in Tripp County, South Dakota, adjacent to Rosebud lands. Construction has begun despite the fact that there are three lawsuits currently going on.

This is in violation of federal law. Bordeaux of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe. Read the full letter from President Bordeaux:. On March 23, , the U. This decision reversed two previous administrative decisions and was done without any public comment or environmental analysis. The permitting process was completed only 56 days after TransCanada submitted its application for the third time. The State Department provided no explanation in the decision for its contradictory factual finding; instead, it simply disregarded its previous factual findings and replaced them with a new one. The reversal came as no surprise. It was a political step, having nothing to do with what the law actually requires.

Woman and horse at Ft. Photo by Todd Klassy. The pipeline would cross less than miles from the headquarters of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation and run directly through sacred and historic sites as well as the ancestral lands of the Gros Ventre and Assiniboine Tribes. These lands are well within the area of impact for even a small rupture and spill. The act established several specific requirements for the proposed constitution. On November 16, , President Theodore Roosevelt signed the proclamation establishing Oklahoma as the nation's 46th state. The early years of statehood were marked with political activity. In , the Democrats moved the capital to Oklahoma City, three years before the Oklahoma Organic Act allowed, in order to move away from the Republican hotbed of Guthrie.

Socialism became a growing force among struggling farmers, and Oklahoma grew to have the largest Socialist population in the United States at the time, with the Socialist vote doubling in every election until the American entry into World War I in By the s, the Republican Party, taking advantage of rifts within the Democratic Party, gained control in the state. The economy continued to improve, in the areas of cattle ranching , cotton, wheat, and especially, oil. Throughout the s, new oil fields were continually discovered and Oklahoma produced over 1. By Oklahoma had 21, people in school out of about 61, people.

In the number of children old enough to be able to go to school had increased to ,, but only about , could actually attend school. It was harder for the rural population to get to schools as there were not as many or nearly as much support for them in non-municipal areas. These schools were often parent funded and were much smaller than the schools we have today being that they were normally only about one room. Cameron, the state's first superintendent of public instruction, summarized the status of education from to He noted that "the rural district school is the foundation.

We will have enrolled this scholastic year not less than , children who never entered a public schoolhouse before and a vast majority of whom never attended a school of any kind a single day. It is the duty of the State to make these schools so strong that they will at least give a glimpse of real education and create a thirst for learning that will carry the student up and through life. In , the Oklahoma constitution required that all students get a free and public education. However, only grades one through eight were offered and African American children were taught separately in different schools. In order to get more use out of the schools, as they did cost money to maintain and were not in constant use, they would offer adult schooling during these times where they were not in use such as the weekends.

This would entail various lectures on topics such as science and literature, political discussions and various trade demonstrations, such as showing how to do different tasks at home or the farm. This got the community more involved with schools and better showed their importance to more people. Oklahoma began consolidating schools in , and the Superintendent's reasoning behind this was to "better improve the quality of buildings, curricula, student interaction, adult education and country roads".

The laws for schools in had this to say about curriculum, "in each and every school district there shall be taught: agriculture, orthography, reading, penmanship, English, grammar, physiology and hygiene, geography, U. Oklahoma followed trends from the rest of the country after World War 1 and combined many districts into one building, and others started splitting the grades one through six and seven through twelve. Oklahoma put a tax levy into place so a poor school district would get some money per child so that it could meet the model school standards. A Lawton educator named Haskell Pruett helped the Oklahoma State Department of Education implement standards for buildings, certifications, teacher training, and curriculum. In there were 5, total districts, of which 5, were rural one-school districts, were rural consolidated or union graded in rural areas, and were independent districts in cities.

Ten years later, in there were 5, districts; of these, 4, were rural one-school districts, were rural consolidated or union, and were urban independent. Change was gradual, but persistent. In the Voluntary School Consolidation Act was passed, which meant that a district could consolidate voluntarily, or be mandated to by the government. By the number of school districts was only This was caused by both mandatory and voluntary consolidation, and only half of the state's 1, schools were rural.

In there were about 96 rural elementary schools who are represented by the Organization of Rural Elementary Schools. OEA works to increase teacher salaries, along with school funding in general and retirement for teachers. The first president of the organization was elected in and his name was Frank Terry. During the s a new building was constructed for the association, and it was also around this time that they started pushing for all teachers to hold at least a baccalaureate degree to teach. In it was required for all teachers to hold a college degree. OEA is the first organization to impose sanctions on their respective state twice. They did this in order to provide better funding for schools.

In the organization helped pass the Professional Negotiations Act, allowing teachers to negotiate their contracts with school boards. In they helped pass the Education Reform Act. By they had helped get all school employees fully-paid individual health insurance. In sixty-one year old African American man George W. McLaurin applied to the University of Oklahoma.

He wanted to earn his doctorate but the only all African American school in Oklahoma at the time was Langston University, which did not offer any graduate programs. Due to the verdict of Sipuel v. Board of Regents, they were motivated to apply to the university. In Oklahoma began implementing policies that made it increasingly difficult for blacks to go earn their education. These included fines for administrators who enrolled a black student in a white school, for teachers who taught in a mixed-race class, and for students who willingly went to those classrooms. With the backing of the NAACP, and his lawyers, McLaurin got the three-judge federal district court for the western district of Oklahoma, to rule that McLaurin was allowed into the graduate program, as long as it was allowed to white students.

In that same court ruled that the various fines against schools and teachers for teaching black students were unconstitutional. However, they also added "This does not mean, however, that the segregation laws of Oklahoma are incapable of enforcement. Despite the conditions, other African Americans were motivated by this to apply to the university. Two more African American students joined McLaurin for the second semester.

There began to be more and more of an outcry for the state legislature to get involved and change how the university was treating their black students. This caused House Bill to be passed. Ten days later they were in court. All they asked was that McLaurin be treated exactly the same as any other student. The court ruled against him as they were providing him with the same educational facilities. McLaurin's lawyers quickly took their case and appealed to the supreme court. This case would be paired with two other similar cases. Instead of admitting him they created an entirely new and much worse version of the school.

The other case was not with the NAACP but involved discrimination against a black passenger of a railcar. On June 5, , by a unanimous vote the supreme court ruled against segregation. They did not however, overturn Plessy V. They did say that segregation was unconstitutional but not because Plessy V. Ferguson was wrong but because by McLaurin being separated from the other students, this was violating his equal protection from the fourteenth amendment. They said that he was "handicapped in his pursuit of effective graduate instruction. Such restrictions impair and inhibit his ability to study, to engage in discussions and exchange views with other students, and in general, to learn his profession.

The administrators at the university were relieved as they could finally get rid of the restrictions that they called "embarrassing compromises with decency and justice" such as "colored only" signs or a wall in the stadium dividing the groups. On June 6, , Ada Louis Sipuel after being put in the back of the class when she was admitted to the university a year earlier, moved to the front of the class because now she was allowed to. By the end of the — academic year, African American students were enrolled, women and 23 men, then by July there were African American students enrolled.

Oil wells have been used by the native people for many years as medicine. Word of these seeps of black medicine attracted the attention of many people and by the s people from all around were coming to see what these seeps of black medicine were. The first oil business was founded in by Robert M. Darden but ultimately failed due to the federal officials not recognized non-native leases. Although oil was encountered in the s, near salina , Oklahoma's first commercial oil well was drilled near Bartlesville in It got so successful that it had to be sealed as it was flooding the market.

The Glen Pool oil reserve was opened in and was later known to be one of the largest oil wells in Oklahoma history. During the Great Depression , oil from Oklahoma and Texas flooded the market and prices fell to pennies a gallon. In , Governor William H. Murray used the National Guard to shut down all of Oklahoma's oil wells in an effort to stabilize prices. The national policy began using the Texas Railroad Commission to set allotments in Texas, which raised prices as well for Oklahoma crude. The prosperity of the s can be seen in the surviving architecture from the period, such as the Tulsa mansion which was converted into the Philbrook Museum of Art or the art deco architecture of downtown Tulsa. Kate Bernard [43].

In the s, Democrat Kate Bernard campaigned for social justice and devoted her life to the underprivileged. She helped underpaid, unskilled workers form their own union in Oklahoma City. However, after being elected to office, those who supported her banned Bernard from the House chamber. In , Bernard withdrew herself from public life and sixteen years later she died. For Oklahoma, the early quarter of the 20th century was politically turbulent. Many different groups had flooded into the state; "black towns", or towns made of groups of African Americans choosing or being forced to live separately from white people, sprouted all over the state, while most of the state abided by the Jim Crow laws within each individual city, racially separating people with a bias against any non-white " race ".

Greenwood , a neighborhood in Northern Tulsa, was known as Black Wall Street because of the vibrant business, cultural, and religious community there. The area was destroyed in the Tulsa race massacre , one of the United States' deadliest race massacres. While many all-Black towns sprang up in the early days of Oklahoma, many have disappeared. The table below lists 13 such towns that have survived to the present.

From to , the state legislature imposed a great many Jim Crow laws: [44]. On May 30, , an incident occurred between a young black man named Dick Rowland and a white woman, Sarah Page. What actually happened is not entirely certain but the assumption was that Rowland assaulted Page. Rowland was arrested the next day. Word of the incident quickly spread and it incited an armed white mob to demand Rowland be turned over; the sheriff and his men refused and barricaded the top floor of the building. Armed members of the black community also showed up to assist in the protection of Rowland. The white rioters came to outnumber the black civilians, who retreated to the Greenwood district. Beginning on June 1, , the white rioters proceeded to burn and loot the district.

Over 6, people were held, and some of them were held for as many as 8 days. The Greenwood district was destroyed in less than 24 hours, with reports stating that about people were injured and as many as people were dead. The Oklahoma Socialist Party achieved a large degree of success in this era the small party had its highest per-capita membership in Oklahoma at this time with 12, dues-paying members in , including the publication of dozens of party newspapers and the election of several hundred local elected officials.

Much of their success came from their willingness to reach out to Black and American Indian voters they were the only party to continue to resist Jim Crow laws , and their willingness to alter traditional Marxist ideology when it made sense to do so the biggest changes were the party's support of widespread small-scale land ownership, and their willingness to use religion positively to preach the "Socialist gospel". The state party also delivered presidential candidate Eugene Debs some of his highest vote counts in the nation.

The party was later crushed into virtual non-existence during the "white terror" that followed the ultra-repressive environment following the Green Corn Rebellion and the World War I era paranoia against anyone who spoke against the war or capitalism. The Industrial Workers of the World tried to gain headway during this period but achieved little success.

Disgruntled Oklahoma farmers and laborers handed left-wing Democrat Jack C. Walton an easy election victory in as governor. One scandal followed another—Walton's questionable administrative practices included payroll padding, jailhouse pardons, removal of college administrators, and an enormous increase in the governor's salary. The conservative elements successfully petitioned for a special legislative recall session. To regain the initiative, Walton retaliated by attacking Oklahoma's Ku Klux Klan with a ban on parades, declaration of martial law, and employment of outsiders to 'keep the peace. Walton's efforts failed, legislators charged Walton with corruption, impeached him, and removed him from office in The Great Depression lasted from to the late s.

Times were especially hard in —33, as the prices of oil and farm products plunged, while debts remained high. Many banks and businesses went bankrupt. The Depression was made much worse for parts of the state by the Dust Bowl conditions. Farmers were hit the hardest and many relocated to the cities and established poor communities known as Hoovervilles. It also initiated a mass migration to California of " Okies " to use the disparaging term common in California in search of a better life, an image that would be popularized in American culture by John Steinbeck 's novel, The Grapes of Wrath.

The book, with photographs by Dorothea Lange , and songs of Woody Guthrie tales of woe from the era. The negative images of the " Okie " as a sort of rootless migrant laborer living in a near-animal state of scrounging for food greatly offended many Oklahomans. These works often mix the experiences of former sharecroppers of the western American South with those of the Exodusters fleeing the fierce dust storms of the High Plains. Although they primarily feature the extremely destitute, the vast majority of the people, both staying in and fleeing from Oklahoma, suffered great poverty in the Depression years.

Grapes of Wrath was a powerful but simplistic view of the complex conditions in rural Oklahoma, and fails to mention the great majority of people remained in Oklahoma. Short-term drought and long-term poor agricultural practices led to the Dust Bowl when massive dust storms blew away the soil from large tracts of arable land and deposited it on nearby farms or even far-distant locations. The resulting crop failures forced many small farmers to flee the state altogether. Although the most persistent dust storms primarily affected the Panhandle, much of the state experienced occasional dusters, intermittent severe drought, and occasional searing heat.

The economy was clearly recovering by , as farm and cattle prices rose. So did the price of oil. Massive Federal spending on infrastructure during the Depression was also beginning to show payoffs. Even before World War II broke out, the Oklahoma industrial economy saw increased demand for its products. Numerous airbases dotted the map of Oklahoma. Robert S. Kerr , governor —46 was an oilman who supported the New Deal and used his network of connections in Washington to secure federal money.

Oklahoma built and expanded numerous army and navy installations and air bases, which in turn brought thousands of well-paid jobs. Kerr went on to become a powerful Senator —63 who watched out for the state's interests and especially for the oil and gas industry. Oklahoma consistently rated among the top 10 states in war-bond sales, as it used showmanship, the spirit of competition, house-to-house solicitations, and direct appeals to big business to mobilize patriotism, state pride, and the need to save some of the high wages that could not be spent because of rationing and shortages.

The bond drives enlisted schoolchildren, housewives and retired men, giving everyone a sense of direct participation in the war effort. Because of the prejudice and unfair treatment under segregation that had divided Oklahoma since with the "grandfather clause" and the national Jim Crow laws , civil rights groups began making movement in Oklahoma even before the technical civil rights era of the s. African Americans experienced many counts of racial violence nationwide and in Oklahoma Specifically, even after gaining their "freedom" after the civil war. The results of the civil war, although it freed African Americans from slavery, did not prevent the inequality and prejudice freed black people would have to face in America. Oklahoma was no stranger to the nationwide inequality and segregation that the grandfather clause and later, Jim Crow Laws, caused.

Specifically, the Tulsa Race Massacre of , that saw over 1, houses burnt or looted and 35 dead. Black newspapers advocated for protections in education, legal actions against Jim Crow laws, and community building in Oklahoma. Along with this, multiple groups of Black Activists spread their information via newspapers. Notable editors of these newspapers include Roscoe Dunjee , who continued to fight for equal rights well into the nationally recognized civil rights era, including fighting for equal pay post WWII and advocating for Ada Louis Sipuel in the Sipuel v.

Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma case , the case that ultimately allowed black students to attend the University of Oklahoma, though segregated. Because of the efforts of black journalists prior to the civil rights era, black solidarity in Oklahoman communities continued to grow stronger. Clubs such as the Prince Hall Masons and The Oklahoma State Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, that had been around previous to Oklahomas official statehood, continued to fraternize and fight for racial equality in Oklahoma.

The women auxiliary group of the Prince Hall Masons, the Eastern Star, additionally worked to provide educational support to black students and created new citizen programs in Oklahoma. The outcome of the well-known Brown v Board of Education Supreme Court case made waves across the country in dismantling educational segregation along with the social standing of Jim Crow laws.

Oklahomans not only accepted the change, being compliant with the new law, but encouraged it with the passing of the provisional constitutional Better Schools Amendment in under Governor Raymond Gary, which made it strictly illegal for schools to practice any form of segregation in the state of Oklahoma. However, this decision did not ultimately remove Jim Crow laws, nor did it end all segregation, as all other. The decision of Brown v Board of education acted as one of the catalyst for the emergence of the Civil Rights era, the court case was quickly followed by the actions of Rosa Parks inspiring the Montgomery Bus Boycott , nationwide sit-ins to protest public segregation, and the rise of Rev.

Martin Luther King Jr. With Martin Luther King's nonviolent views at the forefront of civil rights protests, Oklahoma saw multiple forms of peaceful and effective protests from varying members of the state. One of the most prominent members of Oklahoma's civil rights movement was Clara S. One of Clara Luper's prominent efforts for the fight for civil rights in Oklahoma is the Katz Drug-Store sit-in of , in protest of the segregation of public areas and dining establishments. Super, along with the other youth of the NAACP, sat down in "whites only" areas of the drug store and ordered food and drink as a nonviolent way to display their discontent and lack of toleration towards segregation.

Clara Luper was arrested multiple times for her actions, but nevertheless her action to start the sit-in movement during the civil rights era created a memorable and effective movement of nationwide nonviolent protests. The efforts of Luper and the other members of the Youth Council greatly contributed to the dismantling of segregation in Oklahoma. Prior to the desegregation of higher education in Oklahoma, Black students were confined only to attending Langston University, which forced black students to pay out-of-state tuition costs regardless of Oklahoma citizenship.

However, with the decision of Spiuel vs. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma Case in , black students were allowed admission into the university of Oklahoma, but were "required to segregate [black] students in the University". Because of their close ties to the community, the struggles of the working class and internal issues, their new form of activism known as "Prairie Power" spread across young adults in the midwestern United States. After a longwinded nationwide battle for racial justice in the United States, the Civil Rights act of provided equal protections under the constitution to black Americans, which gave Oklahoman African Americans the opportunity to focus more on legislative change and allow their voices to be heard through black elected officials of Oklahoma, but this did not completely erase prejudice from the south.

With the civil rights era underway, Native Americans began to fight for their freedoms as well. After centuries of improper treatment under the United States constitution, the American Indian movement , or AIM was founded originally in Minneapolis to protest and prevent police racially profiling Native Americans. However, this movement quickly expanded across the United States. As Oklahoma was originally a reserved territory marked for Native reservations following the Indian Removal Act, t he state maintained a large population of Native peoples.

Although the first few years of the American Indian movement were not marked with any significant events in Oklahoma, the year saw the movement's first point of significant progress in the state. On September 12, , forty to fifty Native Americans from the American Indian Movement overtook the office of Indian Education Director Overton James in demand that he resign from his current Indian Education Director position, along with his position of the governor of the Chickasaw nation.

With the negotiation between American Indian movement leaders and Bureau of Indian Affairs, the AIM deemed themselves fully successful as the BIA froze all funds from the Johnson-O'Malley act for the fiscal year along with allowing for more native input on how finances for Indian Education is spent. This success for the AIM gained them nationwide notoriety, and provided a nationwide success for native input into politics. After the students of Fort Hill Indian School FHIS called for the aid of the American Indian movement due to a lack of consideration or responsiveness from faculty and administrative officials at the school because of an inconsistency in the schools curfew policy. In response to this, the American Indian movement overtook the Fort Hill Indian School Administration building, staying there in protest for the students for over twenty four hours before police officers came to the scene and arrested four individuals for trespassing.

Warrior's use of rhetoric was essential to building his cause, which was ultimately successful. The movement held extremely similar values to the American Indian Movement, and was responsible for sparking over two decades of grassroots activism among Native Americans in the United States, and ultimately became the second oldest recognized Native organization in the United States. With the realization that the Choctaw tribe was going to be dissolved under the national government, specifically under "Belvin's Law", Charles E. Brown began to organize other urban choctaw youth and began rallying, moving from door to door to raise awareness for this bill and demanding the bills termination. This movement emphasized that members of the Choctaw nation should take pride in their ancestry, and fight to keep their legacy alive.

The Chocktaw Youth movement gained quick recognition from the Oklahomans for Indian Opportunity organization, along with the support and recognition from Red Power and the American Indian Movement. The movement focused also on creating newsletters for the "average choctaw", which further raised awareness in their campaign. These news letters, actively criticized and questioned Principal Chief Harry J. Belvin, the man who initially proposed the bill to terminate the Choctaw nation in the first place. Along with this the newsletters aimed to create a collective realization between the Choctaw people regarding the lack of control they have over legislation that is pinned against them, along with the control of their native lands.

Soon enough, these Choctaw newsletters were not being spread only to Oklahoman Choctaws, but nationwide. The rapid-fire support and spread this movement saw great success for the movement, giving them the ability to effectively lobby congress, write to Oklahoma Legislative officials and the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and spread a nationwide petition expressing the grievances of the Choctaw people against this bill. Despite the collective efforts of the Choctaw youth movement, its is still heavily debated on whether the collective efforts of the group lobbied the success of the bills termination, or it was the cause of personal fear of attack and removal from office from Belvin.

The term " Okie " in recent years has taken on a new meaning in the past few decades, with many Oklahomans both former and present wearing the label as a badge of honor as a symbol of the Okie survivor attitude. Others mostly alive during the Dust Bowl era still see the term negatively because they see the "Okie" migrants as quitters and transplants to the West Coast. Major trends in Oklahoma history after the Depression-era included the rise again of tribal sovereignty including the issuance of tribal automobile license plates, and the opening of tribal smoke shops, casinos, grocery stores, and other commercial enterprises , the rapid growth of suburban Oklahoma City and Tulsa, the drop in population in Western Oklahoma, the oil boom of the s and the oil bust of the s.

In recent years, major efforts have been made by state and local leaders to revive Oklahoma's small towns and population centers, which had seen a major decline following the oil bust. But Oklahoma City and Tulsa remain economically active in their effort to diversify as the state focuses more on medical research, health, finance, and manufacturing. Excluding governmental and education sectors, the largest single employers in the state tend to be in the aeronautical sector.

For Aeronautical education and training, Tulsa hosts the Spartan College of Aeronautics and Technology that offers training in aviation and aircraft maintenance. Oklahoma University and Oklahoma State University both offer aviation programs. The oil and natural gas industry has historically been a dominant factor in the state's economy, second only to agriculture. Duncan, Oklahoma is the birthplace of Halliburton Corporation. Significant research and education is done in the field by the Oklahoma University's Mewbourne College of Earth and Energy. The state has a surprisingly large concentration of companies that manufacture products that heat and cool buildings HVAC. Murrah Federal Building , killing people, including 19 children. Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols were the convicted perpetrators of the attack, although many believe others were involved.

Timothy McVeigh was later sentenced to death by lethal injection, while his partner, Terry Nichols , who was convicted of counts of first-degree murder received life in prison without the possibility of parole. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. History of the U. Main articles: Mississippian culture and Caddoan Mississippian culture. Main articles: Indian removal and Indian Removal Act. Main articles: Republic of Texas and Kansas Territory. Main articles: Land run and Land Run of Main articles: Admission to the Union and List of U. See also: Tulsa race massacre. Main article: Tulsa race massacre. Main article: Dust Bowl. Main article: Civil Rights Movement. Main article: Historical outline of Oklahoma. David Baird; Danney Goble Oklahoma: A History: A History.

University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN April 17, Archived from the original on May 15, Retrieved July 31, The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. Retrieved 15 May Oklahoma Archaeological Survey. University of Oklahoma. Retrieved 11 April Texas Beyond History. Retrieved November 3, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, — Plains Anthropologist

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