Advantages Of Braille

Tuesday, September 21, 2021 2:39:04 AM

Advantages Of Braille



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As Amazon Associates, we receive a small commission from each referred sale. There are numerous causes for the decline in braille usage, including school budget constraints, technology advancements such as screen-reader software, and different philosophical views over how blind children should be educated. A key turning point for braille literacy was the passage of the Rehabilitation Act of , an act of Congress that moved thousands of children from specialized schools for the blind into mainstream public schools.

Early Braille education is crucial to literacy for a blind or low-vision child. A study conducted in the state of Washington found that people who learned braille at an early age did just as well, if not better than their sighted peers in several areas, including vocabulary and comprehension. Though braille is thought to be the main way blind people read and write, in Britain for example out of the reported two million blind and low vision population, it is estimated that only around 15,—20, people use braille. A debate has started on how to make braille more attractive and for more teachers to be available to teach it. Although it is possible to transcribe print by simply substituting the equivalent braille character for its printed equivalent, in English such a character-by-character transcription known as uncontracted braille is only used by beginners.

Braille characters are much larger than their printed equivalents, and the standard 11" by To reduce space and increase reading speed, most braille alphabets and orthographies use ligatures, abbreviations, and contractions. Virtually all English Braille books are transcribed in this contracted braille, which adds an additional layer of complexity to English orthography: The Library of Congress's Instruction Manual for Braille Transcribing [28] runs to over pages and braille transcribers must pass certification tests. Fully contracted braille is known as Grade 2 Braille. There is an intermediate form, called Grade 1 Braille, that is between Computer Braille one-for-one identity with print and Grade 2 Braille. In Grade 1 Braille, the capital sign and number sign are used, and most punctuation marks are shown using their Grade 2 values.

The system of contractions in English Braille begins with a set of 23 words which are contracted to single characters. Thus the word but is contracted to the single letter b, can to c , do to d , and so on. Even this simple rule creates issues requiring special cases; for example, d is, specifically, an abbreviation of the verb do; the noun do representing the note of the musical scale is a different word, and must be spelled out. Portions of words may be contracted, and many rules govern this process. For example, the character with dots the letter "f" lowered in the Braille cell stands for "ff" when used in the middle of a word.

At the beginning of a word, this same character stands for the word "to"; the character is written in braille with no space following it. This contraction was removed in the Unified English Braille Code. At the end of a word, the same character represents an exclamation point. Some contractions are more similar than their print equivalents. This causes greater confusion between the braille spellings of these words and can hinder the learning process of contracted braille.

The contraction rules take into account the linguistic structure of the word; thus, contractions are generally not to be used when their use would alter the usual braille form of a base word to which a prefix or suffix has been added. Some portions of the transcription rules are not fully codified and rely on the judgment of the transcriber. Thus, when the contraction rules permit the same word in more than one way, preference is given to "the contraction that more nearly approximates correct pronunciation. Grade 3 Braille [30] is a variety of non-standardized systems that include many additional shorthand-like contractions. They are not used for publication, but by individuals for their personal convenience. When people produce braille, this is called braille transcription.

When computer software produces braille, this is called braille translation. Braille translation software exists to handle most of the common languages of the world, and many technical areas, such as mathematics mathematical notation , for example WIMATS , music musical notation , and tactile graphics. Since Braille is one of the few writing systems where tactile perception is used, as opposed to visual perception, a braille reader must develop new skills.

One skill important for Braille readers is the ability to create smooth and even pressures when running one's fingers along the words. There are many different styles and techniques used for the understanding and development of braille, even though a study by B. Holland [31] suggests that there is no specific technique that is superior to any other. Another important reading skill emphasized in this study is to finish reading the end of a line with the right hand and to find the beginning of the next line with the left hand simultaneously.

One final conclusion drawn by both Lowenfield and Abel is that children have difficulty using both hands independently where the right hand is the dominant hand. But this hand preference does not correlate to other activities. When Braille was first adapted to languages other than French, many schemes were adopted, including mapping the native alphabet to the alphabetical order of French — e. Consequently, mutual intelligibility was greatly hindered by this state of affairs. In , the International Congress on Work for the Blind, held in Paris, proposed an international braille standard, where braille codes for different languages and scripts would be based, not on the order of a particular alphabet, but on phonetic correspondence and transliteration to Latin.

This unified braille has been applied to the languages of India and Africa, Arabic, Vietnamese, Hebrew, Russian, and Armenian, as well as nearly all Latin-script languages. Other systems for assigning values to braille patterns are also followed beside the simple mapping of the alphabetical order onto the original French order. Some braille alphabets start with unified braille , and then diverge significantly based on the phonology of the target languages, while others diverge even further.

In the various Chinese systems, traditional braille values are used for initial consonants and the simple vowels. In both Mandarin and Cantonese Braille , however, characters have different readings depending on whether they are placed in syllable-initial onset or syllable-final rime position. Novel systems of braille mapping include Korean, which adopts separate syllable-initial and syllable-final forms for its consonants, explicitly grouping braille cells into syllabic groups in the same way as hangul.

Japanese, meanwhile, combines independent vowel dot patterns and modifier consonant dot patterns into a single braille cell — an abugida representation of each Japanese mora. The current series of Canadian banknotes has a tactile feature consisting of raised dots that indicate the denomination, allowing bills to be easily identified by blind or low vision people. It does not use standard braille; rather, the feature uses a system developed in consultation with blind and low vision Canadians after research indicated that braille was not sufficiently robust and that not all potential users read braille.

Mexican bank notes , Australian bank notes , Indian rupee notes, Israeli new shekel notes [34] and Russian ruble notes also have special raised symbols to make them identifiable by persons who are blind or low vision. In India there are instances where the parliament acts have been published in braille, such as The Right to Information Act. In the United States, the Americans with Disabilities Act of [38] requires various building signage to be in braille.

In the United Kingdom, it is required that medicines have the name of the medicine in Braille on the labeling. Australia also recently introduced the tactile feature onto their five-dollar banknote [40]. This tactile feature helps blind and partially sighted people identify the value of the note. The Braille set was added to the Unicode Standard in version 3.

Thus, for simple material, the same bitstream may be interpreted equally as visual letter forms for sighted readers or their exact semantic equivalent in tactile patterns for blind readers. However some codes have quite different tactile versus visual interpretations and most are not even defined in Braille ASCII. Some embossers have proprietary control codes for 8-dot braille or for full graphics mode, where dots may be placed anywhere on the page without leaving any space between braille cells so that continuous lines can be drawn in diagrams, but these are rarely used and are not standard.

The Unicode standard encodes 6-dot and 8-dot braille glyphs according to their binary appearance, rather than following their assigned numeric order. Dot 1 corresponds to the least significant bit of the low byte of the Unicode scalar value, and dot 8 to the high bit of that byte. The mapping of patterns to characters etc. Every year on 4 January, World Braille Day is observed internationally to commemorate the birth of Louis Braille and to recognize his efforts, but the event is not considered a public holiday. There is a variety of contemporary electronic devices that are serve the needs of blind people that operate in Braille, such as refreshable braille displays and Braille e-book that use different technologies for transmitting graphic information of different types pictures, maps, graphs, texts, etc.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the writing system used by people who are blind or have low vision. For the person who created Braille, see Louis Braille. For other uses, see Braille disambiguation. Tactile writing system for blind and visually impaired people. Night writing Early braille Braille. Unicode range. Play media. Main article: Braille literacy. Main article: International uniformity of braille. Handheld braille labelling machines can produce sticky labels with words written in braille, which can be used to label items. Knowledge of braille is not needed for using these machines.

Digital assistive technology provides further means for blind and visually impaired people to utilise braille in daily life. Electronic braille notetakers serve as braille word processors and also possess the functionality of a smartphone or tablet. These devices not only enable users to complete written work tasks, but also produce hard copies of their work in either braille or print. Additionally, these devices enable users to send and receive emails, browse the internet and read or listen to digital books using a combination of the refreshable braille display and speech output.

There are also stand-alone electronic refreshable braille displays. Both these and braille notetakers can be linked to a PC or laptop with screen reading software enabled to create a multi-functional braille-based IT setup. Louis Braille created braille music notation at the same time as he devised the literary braille code. It uses the same six dot configuration to represent notes, pitch and rhythm.

In the same way that mastering print reading and writing requires sequential learning and practise so, too, does braille. For a young child learning braille, there are particular pre-braille skills that are useful to have in preparation for beginning to learn to read and write braille. These skills include but are not limited to fine motor, tactile discrimination, spatial awareness and auditory awareness. With a carefully tailored, child-centred approach young braille learners can progress to become fluent readers.

The Royal Blind School teaches blind and visually impaired children and young people to read and write braille. At the school, pupils start to learn braille by embarking on a pre-braille programme tailored to meet individual pupil needs. They then progress to learning braille, using a dedicated progressive braille reading scheme. Pupils learn to write, alongside reading, first using a Perkins Brailler and then progressing on to digital electronic braille devices. What is braille? Who uses braille?

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