How Did The Creoles Fight

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How Did The Creoles Fight



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He was not powerful enough to knock out the Spanish armies, but they were not strong enough to defeat him, either. He made a daring move: he crossed the frosty Andes with his army, losing half of it in the process, and arrived in New Granada Colombia in July of He made a speedy march on Bogota, where the Spanish Viceroy hastily sent out a force to delay him. He marched unopposed into Bogota, and the volunteers and resources he found there allowed him to recruit and equip a much larger army, and he once again marched on Venezuela.

Alarmed Spanish officers in Venezuela called for a cease-fire, which was agreed to and lasted until April of The resulting patriot victory secured Venezuela's independence, as the Spanish decided they could never pacify and re-take the region. With the Spanish finally driven off, Venezuela began putting itself back together. The republic lasted until about when it fell apart into Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador Panama was part of Colombia at the time.

Today, Venezuela celebrates two independence days: April 19, when Caracas patriots first declared a provisional independence, and July 5, when they formally severed all ties with Spain. Venezuela celebrates its independence day an official holiday with parades, speeches, and parties. Harvey, Robert. Abrams, September 1, Herring, Hubert. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Lynch, John. Simon Bolivar: A Life. Santos Molano, Enrique. Bogota: Planeta, Scheina, Robert L. Share Flipboard Email. Table of Contents Expand. Venezuela Under the Spanish.

April 19, Venezuela Declares Independence. The First Venezuelan Republic. The Admirable Campaign. The Second Venezuelan Republic. The Years of War, The Battle of Carabobo. After the Battle of Carabobo. Christopher Minster. Professor of History and Literature. Christopher Minster, Ph. Louisiana Creole cuisine is recognized as a unique style of cooking originating in New Orleans, starting in the early s.

It makes use of what is sometimes called the Holy trinity : onions, celery and green peppers. It has developed primarily from various European, African, and Native American historic culinary influences. A distinctly different style of Creole or Cajun cooking exists in Acadiana. It is a roux-based meat stew or soup, sometimes made with some combination of any of the following: seafood usually shrimp, crabs, with oysters optional, or occasionally crawfish , sausage, chicken hen or rooster , alligator, turtle, rabbit, duck, deer or wild boar. Both meat and seafood versions also include the "Holy Trinity" and are served like stew over rice.

It developed from French colonists trying to make bouillabaisse with New World ingredients. Starting with aromatic seasonings, the French used onions and celery as in a traditional mirepoix , but lacked carrots, so they substituted green bell peppers. Africans contributed okra , traditionally grown in regions of Africa, the Middle East and Spain. In Louisiana French dialects, the word "gombo" still refers to both the hybrid stew and the vegetable. The French later favored a roux for thickening. In the 19th century, the Italians added garlic. They introduced having buttered French bread as a side to eating gumbo, as well as a side of German-style potato salad.

Jambalaya is the second of the famous Louisiana Creole dishes. It developed in the European communities of New Orleans. It combined ham with sausage, rice and tomato as a variation of the Spanish dish paella , and was based on locally available ingredients. The name for jambalaya comes from the Occitan language spoken in southern France, where it means "mash-up. Today, jambalaya is commonly made with seafood usually shrimp or chicken, or a combination of shrimp and chicken. Most versions contain smoked sausage , more commonly used instead of ham in modern versions. However, a version of jambalaya that uses ham with shrimp may be closer to the original Creole dish.

Jambalaya is prepared in two ways: "red" and "brown". Red is the tomato-based version native to New Orleans; it is also found in parts of Iberia and St. Martin parishes, and generally uses shrimp or chicken stock. The red-style Creole jambalaya is the original version. The "brown" version is associated with Cajun cooking and does not include tomatoes. Red beans and rice is a dish of Louisiana and Caribbean influence, originating in New Orleans. It contains red beans, the "holy trinity" of onion, celery, and bell pepper, and often andouille smoked sausage, pickled pork, or smoked ham hocks.

The beans are served over white rice. It is one of the famous dishes in Louisiana, and is associated with "washday Monday". It could be cooked all day over a low flame while the women of the house attended to washing the family's clothes. It is often considered the Creole music of Louisiana. As Louisiana French and Louisiana Creole was the lingua franca of the prairies of southwest Louisiana, zydeco was initially sung only in Louisiana French or Creole. An instrument unique to zydeco is a form of washboard called the frottoir or scrub board.

This is a vest made of corrugated aluminum, and played by the musician working bottle openers, bottle caps or spoons up and down the length of the vest. Another instrument used in both Zydeco and Cajun music since the s is the accordion. Zydeco music makes use of the piano or button accordion while Cajun music is played on the diatonic accordion, or Cajun accordion, often called a "squeeze box". Cajun musicians also use the fiddle and steel guitar more often than do those playing Zydeco. Zydeco can be traced to the music of enslaved African people from the 19th century.

It is represented in Slave Songs of the United States , first published in The final seven songs in that work are printed with melody along with text in Louisiana Creole. These and many other songs were sung by slaves on plantations, especially in St. This folklore was carried by their ancestors from the Canary Islands to Louisiana in the 18th century. Louisiana French LF is the regional variety of the French language spoken throughout contemporary Louisiana by individuals who today identify ethno-racially as Creole, Cajun or French, as well as some who identify as Spanish particularly in New Iberia and Baton Rouge , where the Creole people are a mix of French and Spanish and speak the French language [2] , African-American, white, Irish, or of other origins.

Individuals and groups of individuals through innovation, adaptation, and contact continually enrich the French language spoken in Louisiana, seasoning it with linguistic features that can sometimes only be found in Louisiana. Roman and Alexandre Mouton. According to the historian Paul Lachance, "the addition of white immigrants to the white creole population enabled French-speakers to remain a majority of the white population [in New Orleans] until almost If a substantial proportion of Creoles of Color and slaves had not also spoken French, however, the Gallic community would have become a minority of the total population as early as Today, it is generally in more rural areas that people continue to speak Louisiana French or Louisiana Creole.

On the other hand, Spanish usage has fallen markedly over the years among the Spanish Creoles. Still, in the first half of twentieth century, most of the people of Saint Bernard and Galveztown spoke the Spanish language with the Canarian Spanish dialect the ancestors of these Creoles were from the Canary Islands of the 18th century, but the government of Louisiana imposed the use of English in these communities, especially in the schools e. Saint Bernard where if a teacher heard children speaking Spanish she would fine them and punish them. Now, only some people over the age of 80 can speak Spanish in these communities. Most of the youth of Saint Bernard can only speak English.

It has colonial French roots. It is a season of parades , balls some of them masquerade balls and king cake parties. Usually there is one major parade each day weather permitting ; many days have several large parades. The largest and most elaborate parades take place the last five days of the season. In the final week of Carnival, many events large and small occur throughout New Orleans and surrounding communities. The parades in New Orleans are organized by Carnival krewes. Krewe float riders toss throws to the crowds; the most common throws are strings of plastic colorful beads, doubloons aluminum or wooden dollar-sized coins usually impressed with a krewe logo , decorated plastic throw cups , and small inexpensive toys.

Major krewes follow the same parade schedule and route each year. While many tourists center their Mardi Gras season activities on Bourbon Street and the French Quarter , none of the major Mardi Gras parades has entered the Quarter since because of its narrow streets and overhead obstructions. Instead, major parades originate in the Uptown and Mid-City districts and follow a route along St. The term can also be used less specifically for the whole Carnival season, sometimes as "the Mardi Gras season".

While the sophisticated Creole society of New Orleans has historically received much attention, the Cane River area developed its own strong Creole culture. The Cane River Creole community in the northern part of the state, along the Red River and Cane River, is made up of descendants of slavery with a heritage of mostly African along with French, Native Americans, As are other descendants of slaves in Louisiana. Similar Creole migrants from New Orleans and various other ethnic groups who inhabited this region in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Many of their historic plantations still exist.

Isle Brevelle, the area of land between Cane River and Bayou Brevelle, encompasses approximately 18, acres 73 km 2 of land, 16, acres of which are still owned by descendants of the original Creole families. The Cane River as well as Avoyelles and St. Romain, St. Most of the surnames are of French and sometimes Spanish origin. This area is known for the False River ; the parish seat is New Roads , and villages including Morganza are located off the river.

This parish is known to be uniquely Creole; today a large portion of the nearly 22, residents can trace Creole ancestry. The area was noted for its many plantations and cultural life during the French, Spanish, and American colonial periods. The population here had become bilingual or even trilingual with French, Louisiana Creole, and English because of its plantation business before most of Louisiana. The Louisiana Creole language is widely associated with this parish; the local mainland French and Creole i. The local white and black populations as well as people of blended ethnicity spoke the language, because of its importance to the region; Italian immigrants in the 19th century often adopted the language.

Patin, Ricard, St. Brian J. Costello , an 11th generation Pointe Coupee Parish Creole, is the premiere historian, author and archivist on Pointe Coupee's Creole population, language, social and material culture. Most of his 19 solely-authored books, six co-authored books and numerous feature articles and participation in documentaries since have addressed these topics. He was immersed in the area's Louisiana Creole dialect in his childhood, through inter-familial and community immersion and is, therefore, one of the dialect's most fluent, and last, speakers.

Avoyelles Parish has a history rich in Creole ancestry. Marksville has a significant populace of French Creoles. The languages that are spoken are Louisiana French and English. This parish was established in The Creole community in Avoyelles parish is alive and well and has a unique blend of family, food and Creole culture. Evangeline Parish was formed out of the northwestern part of St. Landry Parish in , and is therefore, a former part of the old Poste des Opelousas territory. This area reaches upwards to Pointe Coupee, St. Landry, Avoyelles and what became Evangeline Parish in One of Napoleon Bonaparte's adjutant majors is actually considered the founder of Ville Platte, the parish seat of Evangeline Parish. Landry Parish and became important public, civic, and political figures.

They were discovered on the levee in tattered uniforms by a wealthy Creole planter, "Grand Louis' Fontenot of St. Some later Irish and Italian names also appear. Other parishes so recognized include Avoyelles, St. Landry Parish and Pointe Coupee Parishes. Natchitoches Parish also remains recognized as "Creole". The parish's namesake of "Evangeline" is a reflection of the affection the parish's founder, Paulin Fontenot had for Henry Wadsworth's famous poem of the same name, and not an indication of the parish's ethnic origin.

The adoption of "Cajun" by the residents of this parish reflects both the popular commerce as well as media conditioning, since this northwestern region of the French-speaking triangle was never part of the Acadian settlement region of the Spanish period. Louisiana authors, Creole food, and cultural events featuring scholarly lectures and historical information along with fun for families with free admission, and vendor booths are also a feature of this very interesting festival which unites all French Creoles who share this common culture and heritage.

Landry Parish has a significant population of Creoles, especially in Opelousas and its surrounding areas. Zydeco musicians host festivals all through the year. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ethnic group. Main article: Louisiana New France. Main article: Louisiana New Spain. Further information: Creoles of color. Main article: Louisiana Creole cuisine. Main article: Creole music. Main articles: Louisiana French and Louisiana Creole. Main article: New Orleans Mardi Gras. For a more comprehensive list, see List of Louisiana Creoles. United States portal.

Armistead , even in New Iberia and Baton Rouge , where the Creole people are a mix of French and Spanish, they primarily speak French as a second language and their names and surnames are French-descended. In Saint Bernard Parish and Galveztown, some people are descendants of colonial Spanish settlers and a few elders still speak Spanish. Armistead, Samuel. Page 26 prorogue of the Spanish edition and pages 51 — 61 History and languages. Anrart Ediciones. Ed: First Edition, March Retrieved March 20, African American Registry. UC Press Blog. Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings. Ursuline Convent". Retrieved September 10, Yale University Press. National Park Service. Retrieved February 3, Bell Company Inc. History of New Orleans Volume 3. Ethinkos Kirikas The National Herald.

Retrieved April 17, Harvard University Press. ISBN Marsala Louisiana State University Press. New Orleans: Elegance and Decadence. Chronicle Books. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. The Times-Picayune. Retrieved September 2, August 24, Retrieved May 9, Le Bourdon in French. The Historic New Orleans Collection". March 10, Mariani , Bloomsbury, 2nd edition, Accessed October 23, In Valdman, Albert ed. French and Creole in Louisiana. Louisiana Cultural Vistas. New Orleans: Tulane University. Sanchez, T. U Penn Working Papers in Linguistics.

April 16, ISBN p. Louisiana Library Commission: , p. Brasseaux Louisiana State University Press, C'est Ca Ye' Dit. Margaret Media, Retrieved November 5, Carl A. This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines.

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