Whales In Captivity Research Paper

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Whales In Captivity Research Paper

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Nearly 100 Captive Orcas and Belugas at Risk of Drowning, Freezing to Death - National Geographic

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Thesis statements present arguments based on evidence which is presented throughout the paper, whereas hypotheses are being tested by scientists and mathematicians who may disprove or prove them through experimentation. Here is an example of a hypothesis versus a thesis:. Students skip school more often as summer vacation approaches. This hypothesis could be tested by examining attendance records and interviewing students. It may or may not be true. Students skip school due to sickness, boredom with classes, and the urge to rebel. This thesis presents an argument which will be examined and supported in the paper with detailed evidence and research. The thesis statement is the most important part of the introduction which states all of this information in one concise statement.

Typically, introduction paragraphs require a thesis statement which ties together the entire introduction and introduces the rest of the paper. Theses are necessary components of well-organized and convincing essays, nonfiction pieces, narratives , and documentaries. They allow writers to organize and support arguments to be developed throughout a composition, and they allow readers to understand from the beginning what the aim of the composition is.

List of Terms Action. Ad Hominem. Alter Ego. APA Citation. Comic Relief. Deus ex machina. Double Entendre. Dramatic irony. Extended Metaphor. Fairy Tale. Figures of Speech. Literary Device. Pathetic Fallacy. Plot Twist. Point of View. Red Herring. Baleen whales have fibroelastic connective tissue penises, similar to those of artiodactyls. The tip of the penis, which tapers toward the end, is called the pars intrapraeputialis or terminal cone. All baleen whales use sound for communication and are known to "sing", especially during the breeding season. Blue whales produce the loudest sustained sounds of any animals: their low-frequency about 20 Hz moans can last for half a minute, reach almost decibels, and be heard hundreds of kilometers away.

Adult male humpbacks produce the longest and most complex songs; sequences of moans, groans, roars, sighs, and chirps sometimes lasting more than ten minutes are repeated for hours. Typically, all humpback males in a population sing the same song over a breeding season, but the songs change slightly between seasons, and males in one population have been observed adapting the song from males of a neighboring population over a few breeding seasons. Unlike their toothed whale counterparts, baleen whales are hard to study because of their immense size.

Intelligence tests such as the mirror test cannot be done because their bulk and lack of body language makes a reaction impossible to be definitive. However, studies on the brains of humpback whales revealed spindle cells , which, in humans, control theory of mind. Because of this, it is thought that baleen whales, or at least humpback whales, have consciousness. Whaling by humans has existed since the Stone Age. Ancient whalers used harpoons to spear the bigger animals from boats out at sea. Commercial whaling was historically important as an industry well throughout the 19th and 20th centuries.

Whaling was at that time a sizable European industry with ships from Britain, France, Spain, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany, sometimes collaborating to hunt whales in the Arctic. Commonly exploited species included arctic whales such as the gray whale, right whale, and bowhead whale because they were close to the main whaling ports, like New Bedford. After those stocks were depleted, rorquals in the South Pacific were targeted by nearly all whaling organizations; however, they often out-swam whaling vessels. Whaling rorquals was not effective until the harpoon cannon was invented in the late s. This provision will be kept under review, based upon the best scientific advice, and by at the latest the Commission will undertake a comprehensive assessment of the effects of this decision on whale stocks and consider modification of this provision and the establishment of other catch limits.

As of , the International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN recognizes 15 mysticete species while not yet officially recognizing Rice's whale as a species, it still gives it a conservation status as a distinct population segment. Two species—the North Atlantic right whale with only around individuals left and Rice's whale with less than individuals left —are considered critically endangered. Three more are classified as endangered the North Pacific right whale, the blue whale, and the sei whale , one as vulnerable the fin whale , one as near-threatened Antarctic minke whale , and one as data deficient Omura's whale.

The whale-watching industry and anti-whaling advocates argue that whaling catches "friendly" whales that are curious about boats, as these whales are the easiest to catch. This analysis claims that once the economic benefits of hotels, restaurants and other tourist amenities are considered, hunting whales is a net economic loss. This argument is particularly contentious in Iceland, as it has among the most-developed whale-watching operations in the world and the hunting of minke whales resumed in August Brazil, Argentina and South Africa argue that whale watching is a growing billion-dollar industry that provides more revenue than commercial whaling would provide.

Commercial whaling was historically important for the world economy. All species were exploited, and as one type's stock depleted, another type was targeted. The scale of whale harvesting decreased substantially through the s as all whale stocks had been depleted, and practically stopped in after the International Whaling Commission placed a moratorium which banned whaling for commercial use.

Baleen whales continue to be harvested. Only three nations take whales: Iceland, Norway, and Japan. All these nations are part of the IWC, with Norway and Iceland rejecting the moratorium and continuing commercial whaling. JARPA mainly caught Antarctic minke whales, catching nearly 7,; to a far lesser extent, they also caught fin whales. Baleen whales can also be affected by humans in more indirect ways. For species like the North Atlantic right whale, which migrates through some of the world's busiest shipping lanes, the biggest threat is from being struck by ships.

The Lloyd's mirror effect results in low frequency propeller sounds not being discernible near the surface, where most accidents occur. Combined with spreading and acoustic shadowing effects , the result is that the whale is unable to hear an approaching vessel before it has been run over or entrapped by the hydrodynamic forces of the vessel's passage. Poisoning from toxic substances such as polychlorinated biphenyl PCB is generally low because of their low trophic level. Some baleen whales can become victims of bycatch , which is especially serious for North Atlantic right whales considering its small number.

Rope wraps around their upper jaw, flippers and tail. Some are able to escape, but others remain entangled. If observers notice, they can be successfully disentangled, but others die over a period of months. Other whales, such as humpback whales, can also be entangled. Baleen whales have rarely been kept in captivity. Their large size and appetite make them expensive creatures to maintain. Pools of proper size would also be very expensive to build. For example, a single gray whale calf would need to eat kilograms lb of fish per day, and the pool would have to accommodate the 4-meter 13 ft calf, along with ample room to swim. The first gray whale, which was captured in Scammon's Lagoon , Baja California Sur , in , was named Gigi and died two months later from an infection.

Reaching 8, kilograms 19, lb and 9. The Mito Aquarium in Numazu, Shizuoka, Japan , housed three minke whales in the nearby bay enclosed by nets. One survived for three months, another a calf survived for two weeks, and another was kept for over a month before breaking through the nets. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Whales that strain food from the water using baleen. See also: List of cetaceans and List of extinct cetaceans. The three baleen whale families. Eschrichtius , Balaenopteridae. Eubalaena , Balaenidae. Megaptera , Balaenopteridae. Balaena , Balaenidae. Balaenoptera , Balaenopteridae. List of mysticetes. Main article: Evolution of cetaceans. Paired blowholes of a humpback and the V-shaped blow of a right whale. See also: Whale penis.

Main article: Whale vocalization. Singing Humpbacks. Recording of Humpback Whales singing and clicking. Main article: History of whaling. See also: Whaling controversy. Princeton University Press. ISBN Martin's Press. Journal of Morphology. PMID S2CID Archived from the original PDF on Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 25 January New York: The Smithsonian Institution. Molecular Biology and Evolution. Marine Mammal Science. The Bowhead Whale. Molecular Ecology. OCLC Proceedings of the Royal Society B. PMC Comptes Rendus Biologies in French. Journal of Mammalian Evolution. Systematic Biology. Science Advances. Bibcode : SciA Oxford University Press. Leviathan: The History of Whaling in America.

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Bibcode : JThBi. Marine Food Chains. University of California Press. Bibcode : PLoSO.. Aquatic Biosystems. Mammal Review. CiteSeerX Marine and Freshwater Research. ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research. Retrieved 24 January Gray Whales: Wandering Giants. Orca Book Publishing. Rice, D. Report of the International Whaling Commission. Special Issue 1: 92— Canadian Journal of Zoology. Report of the International Whaling Commission : —9. Biology and Exploitation of the Minke Whale. Journal of Mammalogy. Knowlton, S. Kraus and R. Kenney Concepts in Toxicology. Royal Society of Chemistry. Nature journal. Retrieved 6 January Marine Mammals: Biology and Conservation. Plenum Publishers.

Longest animal penis. Guinness World Records. Retrieved 15 March Wild mammals of North America : biology, management, and conservation 2nd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press. Allman, J. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. BBC News. Stone Age people may have started hunting whales as early as 6, BC, new evidence from South Korea suggests. The Monthly. Retrieved 21 April Basque whaling in Labrador in the 16th century. New Bedford Whaling Museum. University of Hull. O The History of Modern Whaling. The University of California Press. Norton and Company, Inc. Marine Environmental Biology and Conservation.

Jones and Bartlett Learning. International Whaling Commission. Version Retrieved 17 July Whales in Hot Water? World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 27 January International Fund for Animal Welfare. LA Times. In Fitzpatrick, Lisa ed. Earth in Focus. Bush Warriors. Retrieved 30 January Retrieved 29 January Limits of Maritime Jurisdiction. Greenpeace International. NY Times. Associated Press. Bibcode : PLoSO Recovery plan for the blue whale Balaenoptera musculus PDF. National Marine Fisheries Service. Science of the Total Environment. Bibcode : ScTEn. Retrieved Office of Protected Resources. NOAA Fisheries. Retrieved 15 December Seattle Times. William Marine Fisheries Review. Begins Long Journey Home". Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute.

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Parvorder Mysticeti Baleen whales. Bowhead whale B. Southern right whale E. Common minke whale B. Gray whale E. Humpback whale M. Pygmy right whale C. Parvorder Odontoceti Toothed whales. Commerson's dolphin C. Common dolphin D. Pygmy killer whale F. Short-finned pilot whale G. Risso's dolphin G. Fraser's dolphin L. White-beaked dolphin L. Atlantic white-sided dolphin L. Northern right whale dolphin L. Irrawaddy dolphin O. Killer whale O. Melon-headed whale P. False killer whale P. Peale's dolphin S. Tucuxi S. Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin S.

Pantropical spotted dolphin S.

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