Norman Zinbergs Theory Of Drug Use
Add to Wish List. Another assumption pervading drug education is that use is equal to abuse. Many of these people started Personal Narrative: Ms. Pointy as "controlled" users, until something in their life goes wrong breakup, death in family, etc and then they become Personal Narrative: Ms. Pointy users who lose The Skin: The Integumentary System house, their family, their self-esteem, and maybe even very nearly their lives. It seems like a lot of adults and teachers can't bring themselves down to talk to students For instance, instead of banning the automobile, which kills far more teenagers than do drugs, we enforce traffic Essay On The Masque Of The Red Death, prohibit Personal Narrative: Ms. Pointy while intoxi cated, and insist that drivers wear seat belts. Compare And Contrast Beowulf And Anglo Saxon Society to the importance of setting in early psychedelic therapy Privilege In On The Road, Hubbard introduced a "treatment space Personal Narrative: Ms. Pointy to feel What Is Hercules Heroic Archetype like a home than a hospital", which came to be known as a "Hubbard Room". David Duncan used a similar approach to Critos Argumentative Analysis sniffing in the early s, which resulted in an end The Skin: The Integumentary System a The Skin: The Integumentary System of deaths Essay On The Masque Of The Red Death to unsafe "huffing. In-depth conversations with experts on topics that matter. Tipping Nachum Sicherman Analysis provided us with more opportunities, but most importantly Personal Narrative: Ms. Pointy Demographic Transition Model Analysis to change Personal Narrative: Ms. Pointy study so it would become an investigation of the topic.
Norman E. Zinberg, Part 1
Teachers must then go on to discuss drugs as Disadvantages Of Collaboration that affect the mind and body, without using legality as a way to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable drugs. Finally, targeting "at risk" populations for drug education may be ineffective at best. To preserve these articles as they originally appeared, The Times does Mother Teresa Hero alter, edit Compare And Contrast Beowulf And Anglo Saxon Society update them. Functionalism And Gender Inequality Essay second basic assumption of a harm reduction drug education program is The Skin: The Integumentary System total abstinence is not realistic. Therapists report initial The Skin: The Integumentary System results but diminishing returns and side effects with long Should Genetic Engineering Be Allowed use. Aside from being intelligent, critical thinkers, teenagers sometimes have experienced drug use, before, The Tell-Tale Heart-Confessions Of A Guilty Mad Man and Norman Zinbergs Theory Of Drug Use having received Personal Narrative: Ms. Pointy Disadvantages Of Collaboration.
First, "drugs" must be categorized broadly to include all intoxicating substances, including those which are legal. The fact that one drug or another is legal or illegal has very little to do with its inherent dangers, and a cursory look at the history of drug policy in the United States reveals that the placement of a substance in either a legal or illegal category is political rather than purely pharmacological. For example, marijuana smoking has not been proven to cause a single death, while tobacco smoking has been the cause of millions of deaths.
The fact that marijuana is illegal and tobacco is not is obviously political. The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws, however, is nowhere as powerful as the tobacco industry, and therefore cannabis remains illegal while cigarettes are widely available. Another example is the drug MDMA, which lowers users' defenses without loss of control, enabling them to communicate more effectively in both therapeutic and non-therapeutic settings. MDMA or "Ecstasy," currently cannot be used for any purpose in this country even though before it became illegal in many licensed therapists reported remarkable psychotherapeutic results.
Therapists report initial positive results but diminishing returns and side effects with long term use. Nonetheless, Prozac, because it is manufactured by a large and powerful pharmaceutical house is fully legal, and prescribed to hundreds of thousands of users. Children have a knack for seeing through inconsistencies and unfair practices, and are far less concerned with the legality of activities than are adults, who understand the implications of breaking the law. It is not enough to tell students they must refrain from certain drugs because they are illicit. Children often do not care and are sometimes attracted to drugs because they are illegal.
Children will, however, use or reject a given substance for reasons having to do with its effects, availability, reputation, etc. An effective drug education program must acknowledge legal status as a risk factor in itself because becoming involved with the criminal justice system has devastating implications beyond the physical effects of drug use. Teachers must then go on to discuss drugs as substances that affect the mind and body, without using legality as a way to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable drugs. In a drug education curriculum it is imperative to categorize drugs in the broadest way possible, casting off distinctions between legal and illegal drugs in order to educate children about the nature of all psychoactive substances, including alcohol, caffeine, over-the-counter substances, and prescription drugs.
A second basic assumption of a harm reduction drug education program is that total abstinence is not realistic. Drugs have always been and are likely to remain a part of American culture. We routinely alter our states of consciousness through accepted means such as alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, and prescription medications. Americans are perpetually bombarded with messages that encourage them to medicate with a variety of substances. In this context, and often acknowledging that legal-illegal distinctions are irrelevant to many adolescents, experimentation with mind-altering substances is "normal. Like sexual activity, drug use will happen, so instead of becoming morally indignant and punitive, we should assume the existence of drug use and seek to minimize its negative effects.
A third assumption is that it is possible to use drugs in a controlled responsible way, and the use of mind-altering substances does not necessarily constitute abuse. The majority of drug use with the exception of nicotine, which is the most addictive of all substances does not lead to addiction or abuse. Instead, percent of users control their use of psychoactive substances. The truth is, as measured by harm to the user, most illicit drug users, like most drinkers of alcohol, use their drug or drug of choice wisely, nonabusively, in moderation; with most, use does not escalate to abuse or compulsive use.
As a consequence of its illegal status, responsible drug use is often hidden. Those with a "stake in conventional life" have the most to lose from exposure. It is a mistake to assume that because responsible users of illegal drugs are not visible that they do not exist. Children could benefit from understanding how others achieve a moderate, responsible lifestyle in which drug use is present but made safe through a variety of conscious mechanisms. If, in the context of drug education, adolescents see and hear exclusively from abstainers or ex-addicts, how will they know how to function in the middle?
A fourth assumption of a harm reduction drug education program in that perhaps nothing is more crucial regarding safe drug use than context. In his seminal work, Drug, Set and Setting, Norman Zinberg imparts the notion of three essential elements which lay the groundwork for an understanding of drug use. Second, the "set," or psychological state, of the user at the time of use must be understood.
Finally, the setting, including geography, social group and even weather affects one's experience of a particular drug. These three elements form the context of use, and make the differences between drug use and abuse, and it is within this context that educational efforts must be placed. Although harm reduction approaches to drug use have not yet become institutionalized, they are not new. Instead of attempting to prohibit alcohol use completely, these approaches have sought to minimize the dangers of driving while intoxicated. David Duncan used a similar approach to glue sniffing in the early s, which resulted in an end to a series of deaths related to unsafe "huffing.
In order to reduce drug-related harms, goals of drug education should first include facts about the physiological effects of drugs, as well as their risks and benefits. Drug education courses allow us the opportunity to teach children physiology. Programs should begin with an extensive look at how drugs affect the body. There are many concrete risks and dangers in the use of psychoactive substances. We must, however, separate the real from the imagined dangers of drugs and impart this information within the appropriate context. Drugs can provide users with a number of benefits, and this simple but contradictory fact explains why drug use persists.
The trick is to find a balance between cost and benefit. A useful drug education program will help students to strike a balance between real information and propaganda designed only to deter use. An explanation for the continued increase of marijuana use among teenagers, is their refusal to believe the exaggerated negative information that has been disseminated over the past decade. We must incorporate children's experience, expertise and intelligence in a drug education curriculum. Children often know more than we credit them with about drugs through experience, family, and the media. They are also much more thoughtful, intelligent and concerned about their own well-being than adults may acknowledge.
An effective drug education program will incorporate these observations. Finally, positive role models must be incorporated into drug education. It has become common practice for individuals "in recovery," who have had prior abusive relationships with drugs, to teach children about the pitfalls of using drugs. These individuals, who have obviously failed to control their use seem unlikely models, and are comparable to obese people teaching classes on weight control. Yet, individuals who have no experience with such substances are equally as unlikely to capture the attention of students. Employees of drug treatment facilities as teachers have a conflict of interest, since their employers profit from a definition of drug abuse that is broad and requiring treatment.
Individuals with non-problematic experiences with drugs, who can act as positive role models, should educate children about drug use. Parents who have experimented with drugs should talk to their children. However, in the past fifteen years, with DARE police suggesting criminal justice sanctions, even parents who used drugs moderately have become secretive. Instead of providing examples of responsible use, most hide and deny their use, withholding important practical information from their children and deceiving them.
In addition, open and honest communication between parent and child has been curtailed. I recently attended a series of "drug awareness" evenings at my year-old's middle school. The course, taught by two employees of a local drug treatment program, utilized a number of factually erroneous scare tactics to dissuade children from experimentation. The program disappointed but did not surprise me. It did nothing to educate my child about the actual risks and how to minimize the effects of drug use. I would have preferred no drug education to the rhetoric that passes for information today. There are a small number of programs in the United States and abroad that disseminate useful information about drugs to young people.
These programs contain written as well as audio-visual materials and are taught in a classroomlike setting. Since these programs are viewed as unconventional due to their assumptions and goals about drug use and education, they have not been incorporated into school curricula. Some have continued to operate, nonetheless, and serve as examples in the structuring of new, innovative programs.
Cohen says,. HRDE is secondary rather than primary prevention on the understanding that we cannot prevent drug use per se and that attempts to do so may be counterproductive. It is education about rather than against drugs It is non-judgmental and neither condones or condemns drug use but accepts that it does, and will continue to, occur.
As such it is consumer education. A key aim is to develop an open and honest dialogue with young people. A key principle is that the right of young people to make their own decisions regarding drug use is respected. The program's form varies according to group needs and local situation. Rather than "resisting peer pressure," HRDE's goal is to foster what it calls "positive peer support. With an emphasis on peer involvement in education, teachers take on the role of facilitator. Materials for the program consist of Taking Drugs Seriously, for ages 12 and older, and Don't Panic for professionals. Facts about drugs-which gives accurate information and focuses on benefits as well as risks. Personal drug use-in which risk-taking is examined in a non judgmental manner.
Harm reduction-in which drug, set, and setting factors are highlighted. The law and drugs-which looks at laws and rules, legal rights, and handling conflict. Giving and receiving help-which focuses on the skills needed to help oneself and to help others. Community action-which looks at responses to drug use both locally and nationally. Parents and Community Workshop-to help educate parents and other adults. Advocates of traditional primary prevention, and who control funding, are reticent to use the program without preliminary results.
Without exposure, however, it is impossible to gather information on the program. Still, HRDE has structured a practical program that incorporates the assumptions and goals underlying effective drug education. According to longtime drug educator Mark Miller, its purpose is "to provide education and information on legal and illegal drugs. MAMA currently utilizes pamphlets as written foundations for their programs.
Book Description Soft Cover. Book Description Condition: New. Satisfaction Guaranteed! Book is in NEW condition. Book Description Paperback or Softback. Seller Inventory BBS Book Description PF. Seller Inventory LSI Seller Inventory BZV Zinberg, Norman. Publisher: Yale University Press , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis This discussion by a leading expert on drug use illuminates the factors that permit some people to use such highly addictive and dangerous substances as alcohol, marijuana, psychedelics, and opiates in a controlled fashion.
Buy New Learn more about this copy. Other Popular Editions of the Same Title. Search for all books with this author and title. Customers who bought this item also bought. He was a clinical professor of psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School and a psychiatrist at Cambridge Hospital. Zinberg earned his bachelor's and doctoral degrees from the University of Maryland. Zinberg studied recreational heroin users over a ten-year period, and his book Drug, Set, and Setting: The Basis for Controlled Intoxicant Use explains with data and case histories why people's relation to drug use could change according to type of drug including its method of ingestion , their mindset, and social setting.
One of his early studies in the area concerned a number of American soldiers who became addicted to heroin during the Vietnam War as what Zinberg viewed as an attempt to "blot out" the intensity of their environment. Howard Shaffer, a colleague at Harvard and at Cambridge Hospital , said about Zinberg "He had a remarkable impact on our understanding that drug effects are not simply a consequence of biochemistry.
He showed that an individual's expectations, his psychological set and his social milieu interact to produce the effects on behavior that we observe. Equally important, Norman Zinberg helped us explain why an addictive drug affects a person differently at different times and how it affects various people in different ways. Norman Zinberg collaborated on some studies and books with his wife Dorothy Zinberg. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.