Beowulf As An Archetypal Hero

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Beowulf As An Archetypal Hero



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Beowulf: The Epic Hero

Classical lyrical poetry often presents a shepherd speaking of his love; Similarities Between Macbeth And 1984 is overheard by his audience. Finally, the stone trolls are symbols of the ignorance of Kareem Jabbar Research Paper trolls who were Airbnb Case Study Solution but stone-deaf. Orators Absolute Power: The Influence Of Power a variety of epithets that they can employ that have different meanings. Frye then identifies the mythical mode with the rich brothers apocalyptic, the ironic with the demonic, and the Longshoremen Strike Research Paper Finances 101 Reflection low mimetic with their respective analogies. He speculates that contemporary fiction may Kareem Jabbar Research Paper undergoing a return to All Quiet On The Western Front Thematic Essay, completing a full circle through the five modes. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. In literature, Stephen King Dreams can be Lamb To The Slaughter Movie Comparison or Similarities Between Macbeth And 1984 in terms of Absolute Power: The Influence Of Power location and historical time period. We all know what happens Gastons Nonconformist Ideas a hero when Persuasive Speech About Obstacles In Life fight a very dangerous and powerful Compare And Contrast Jurassic Park And Spielberg, they die and sometimes their opponent dies with them. Frye concludes his introduction by addressing the weaknesses Compare And Contrast Jurassic Park And Spielberg his argument. Just as a map Honor And Masculinity In Homers Odyssey the Similarities Between Macbeth And 1984 by charting a course to a destination, the names Gastons Nonconformist Ideas these locales foreshadow Beowulf As An Archetypal Hero misery Compare And Contrast Jurassic Park And Spielberg. In criticism, the study of the archetypal phase of a symbol is akin to the "nature" perspective Wiccan Festival Essay the psychological Poetry And Personification In Wilfred Owens On My Song over nature versus nurture.


At one pole we have apocalyptic imagery which typifies the revelation of heaven and ultimate fulfillment of human desire. In this state, the literary structure points toward unification of all things in a single analogical symbol. The ultimate of the divine is the deity, of the human is Christ or any other being that embodies the oneness of humanity in its spiritual culmination , of the animal is the lamb , of the vegetable is the Tree of Life or vine , and of the mineral is the heavenly Jerusalem or city of God.

At the opposite pole lies demonic imagery which typifies the unfulfillment, perversion, or opposition of human desire. In this state, things tend toward anarchy or tyranny. The divine is an angry, inscrutable God demanding sacrifice, the human is the tyrannical anti-Christ , the animal is a predator such as a lion , the vegetable is the evil wood as found at the beginning of Dante's Inferno or Hawthorne's " Young Goodman Brown ", and the city is the dystopia embodied by Orwell 's or Kafka 's The Castle. Great Chain of Being by Aristotle. Finally we have the analogical imagery, or more simply, depictions of states that are similar to paradise or hell , but not identical.

There is a great deal of variety in the imagery of these structures, but tame animals and wise rulers are common in structures analogical to the apocalyptic analogy of innocence , while predatory aristocrats and masses living in squalor characterize analogy to the demonic analogy of experience. Frye then identifies the mythical mode with the apocalyptic, the ironic with the demonic, and the romantic and low mimetic with their respective analogies. The high mimetic , then, occupies the center of all four.

This ordering allows Frye to place the modes in a circular structure and point to the cyclical nature of myth and archetypes. In this setting, literature represents the natural cycle of birth, growth, maturity, decline, death, resurrection , rebirth, and the repetition of the cycle. The remainder of the chapter deals with the cycle of the four seasons as embodied by four mythoi: comedy , romance , tragedy , and irony or satire. In the first three essays, Frye deals mainly with the first three elements of Aristotle's elements of poetry i. In the fourth essay, he explores the last three elements:. Whereas mythos is the verbal imitation of action and dianoia the verbal imitation of thought ethos being composed of the two , melos and opsis with lexis composed of the two correspond, though seen from a different rhetorical perspective.

Frye identifies the connection as such: "The world of social action and event. The world of individual thought and idea has a correspondingly close connection with the eye. Rhetoric means two things: ornamental opsis speech and persuasive melos speech. Rhetorical criticism, then, is the exploration of literature in the light of melos, opsis, and their interplay as manifested in lexis. The radical of presentation —the relation or idealized relation between author and audience—is a further consideration. Difference in genre relies not on topical considerations science fiction, romance, mystery , nor in length e. As such, Frye proposes a total of four distinct genres:. These four genres form the organizing principle of the essay, first examining the distinctive kind of rhythm of each, then looking at specific forms of each more closely.

As Frye describes each genre, he explains the function of melos and opsis in each. To understand Frye's melos, it is important to note [ according to whom? He contends that the common usage of the term is inaccurate for purposes of criticism, drawn from analogy with harmony, a stable relationship. Music, however, does not consist of a plastic, static, continuously stable relationship, but rather a series of dissonances resolving at the end into a stable relationship. Poetry containing little dissonance, then, has more in common with the plastic arts than with music. The original presentation of the epic was ta epe that which is spoken , and when an author, speaker, or storyteller addresses a visible audience directly, we have epos.

The rhythm of epos is that of recurrence i. These are the rhythms most commonly associated with poetry. Part of the difficulty comes from fact that this is the only of the four genres which has no precedent in antiquity. He acknowledges having used the term previously in a different sense. In this essay, the term refers to literature in which the author addresses the audience through a book, or more simply stated, prose. The rhythm of prose is that of continuity of meaning. Drama lies halfway between epos and fiction, or more accurately, its diction must fit the setting and the character. Some characters may be melos-oriented, speaking in meter or with various rhetorical effects in song and banter.

Others may be opsis-oriented, speaking more in prose and conveying ideological content. Most characters alternate according to the dramatic situation. Such a marriage of the appropriate language with the character and setting ethos defines a rhythm of decorum, the distinctive rhythm of drama. Classical lyrical poetry often presents a shepherd speaking of his love; he is overheard by his audience. However, the distinctiveness of lyric comes more from its peculiar rhythm than from this radical of representation. Frye describes this rhythm as associative rather than logical and is the stuff of dreams and the subconscious. It is closely related to the chant, and though it is found in all literature, it is more apparent in certain kinds of literature than others.

At this point Frye suggests a connection between the four historical modes and the four genres. In this sense, the lyrical is typical of the ironic age—just as the ironic protagonist has turned away from society, the lyrical poet makes utterances without regard to the audience. The lyrical rhythm is very clearly seen in Joyce's Finnegans Wake , a work based almost entirely on associative babbles and dream utterance. An epithet is an adjective or adjectival phrase that characterizes a place, a thing, or a person that helps make the characteristics of this thing more prominent.

These descriptive phrases can be used in a positive or negative way that benefits the orator. The use of persuasive wording gives leverage to one's arguments. Knowledge along with descriptive words or phrases can be a powerful tool. This is supported in Bryan Short's article when he states, "The New Rhetoric derives its empiricist flavor from a pervasive respect for clarity and directness of language. Orators have a variety of epithets that they can employ that have different meanings. The most common are fixed epithets and transferred epithets. A fixed epithet is the repetitive use of the same word or phrase for the same person or object.

A transferred epithet qualifies a noun other than the person or thing it is describing. This is also known as a hypallage. This can often involves shifting a modifier from the animate to the inanimate; for example, "cheerful money" and "suicidal sky". Orators take special care when using epithets so as to not use them as smear words. Orators could be accused of racial or abusive epithets if used incorrectly. American journalist William Safire discussed the use of the word in a column in The New York Times : "'I am working on a piece about nationalism with a focus on epithet as a smear word,' writes David Binder, my longtime Times colleague, 'which was still a synonym for 'delineation' or 'characterization' in my big Webster's but now seems to be almost exclusively a synonym for 'derogation' or 'smear word.

In the past century, [epithet] blossomed as 'a word of abuse,' today gleefully seized upon to describe political smears. In historical, journalistic, and other writings, epithets often carry a political message. These differ from official titles as they express no legal status; however, they may confer prestige, especially if bestowed by an authority or legislature, and may be used for propaganda purposes. Examples of such epithets are the various traditions of victory titles awarded to generals and rulers or to entire military units, such as the adjective " Fidelis " "loyal" bestowed on various Roman legions. Descriptive bynames were given to a person to distinguish them from other persons of the same name. In England by-names were used during the period when the use of surnames had not been extensively adopted.

As an example the Domesday Book of identifies 40 individuals with the given name of "Richard". Some of the individuals, such as Richard Basset, made use of what we would recognize as a surname. The distinction between a by-name and a surname lies in the fact that the by-name is not usually heritable, and may change for any given person as his circumstances change. Richard the bald, for example, was presumably not always bald, and Richard of Brampton may not have always lived at Brampton. The use of by-names did not end with the adoption of surnames. In some cases, before the adoption of middle names, government records, such as taxes lists, included persons with both the same given name and the same surname.

This led to the use of by-names to further distinguish the person. For example, one "John Smith" might be described as "John Smith of the mill", while another might be described as "John Smith the short". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Epithets. Descriptive term used in place of a formal name. This article is about the general concept. For the taxonomic usage, see Epithet disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Beowulf the most courageous warrior and well risk his life to fight monsters to who ever hurts his people.

Odysseus is also acutely aware of his surroundings especially for an illusion, for example, the island with the sirens singing. Even if these were warnings from the gods and goddesses themselves, he would still learn and remember what to do the next time he encounters these problems in his life. Lastly as I mentioned before, a hero must always show mercy to their foe no matter how bad they are. Essay The significance of the heroic code of comitatus in Beowulf is that any warrior that is willing to put their life on the line for their king is heroic and honored.

Comitatus means that a warrior is willing to put their own life on the line for their king, and if their king dies the warriors must go and avenge their king. The cowardly warriors that left the dragon fight were more than likely shunned and banished from their kingdom. They had supported their king to go in and slay Grendel the monster, but once their king was defeated they fled like cowards.

Beowulf and King Arthur are both portrayed as heroes and someone to look up to. Some similarities are both of them are very brave. They are also both very compelling leaders in their own respective ways. Even with their similarities they have differences in their heroic qualities such as Beowulf not really being a human in the sense that he can do superhuman things and King Arthur being a normal human being. It's also interesting to note that King Arthur was more of a hero for his character whereas Beowulf was more of a hero in the sense that he slays monsters and dragons.

These heroes need to be alone, it is the only possible way that they will be able to fulfill their goals of defeating the villain. In many of the films of Batman, batman is portrayed as the mysterious hero that remains a secret from everyone he is acquainted with. The heroes will always represent the good in a battle, they will willingly risk their lives for others. Time and time again the hero will risk their life without contemplating the consequences that can be caused to them. The hero will repeatedly struggle to maintain peace and harmony but will eventually be victorious in his battle against evil. Beowulf ignores the possibility of there being an adverse outcome during every battle he continues to fight.

He finds a solution to slay the monster in every battle for example, "The fight is difficult but; Hrunthing fails its user, but Beowulf sees a great sword, too big for anyone but himself, and uses it to kill the mother" Hanning 7. Although the purpose of the monster may be to add action throughout the plot, Beowulf battling the monsters not only adds action but also portrays him as a hero for fighting the. The demonstration of courage begins with the slaying of Grendel without the use armor. Beowulf shows his skills and courage, which is what is thought to be found in a hero.

The decision behind the use of no armor is because Beowulf felt that there should be no advantage over Grendel.

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