Volcanic Tragedies In Pompeii

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Volcanic Tragedies In Pompeii



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Bob Lee built the dome homes in as an environmentally friendly and self-contained getaway for his family on Marco Island, Florida. While the pods once stood on their concrete pylons right on the beach, erosion has resulted in their current location in the ocean. While unlivable today, the igloo-like structures are still standing right off the coast of Marco Island. The crash of the steel industry hit Gary, Indiana, hard in the s. This economic depression resulted in the abandonment of many once-popular buildings, including the City Methodist Church.

However, despite all the work that went into building the beautiful English Gothic-style church, the parish officially closed in Since its closure, the City Methodist Church has not gone entirely untouched. The site has acted as a shooting location for several movies, including "A Nightmare on Elm Street," "Transformers 3," and "Pearl Harbor. The Waverly Hills Sanatorium acted as a hospital in which patients with tuberculosis were quarantined in the early s, although the building that still stands today was not completed until The hospital operated until when an antibiotic that cured tuberculosis was discovered. Today, many people believe that the site is haunted. Visitors can participate in ghost tours, haunted houses, and laser light shows on the hospital grounds.

Commonly known as the "Ghost Tower," the Sathorn Unique Building in Bangkok is an abandoned skyscraper that's shrouded in mystery. The luxury high-rise was built in the s, although construction was abruptly halted upon the Asian Financial Crisis. As a result, the building has fallen into decay and has become a haven for urban explorers. The inside of the tower is covered in graffiti. While climbing to the top of the building is really dangerous, visitors can still get a glimpse inside from the ground floor of a nearby parking garage. At stories with a striking triangular shape, the Ryugyong Hotel in Pyongyang towers over much of the city.

Construction on the building began in with plans of containing Japanese lounges, casinos, and night clubs. However, the hotel has remained unfinished for decades. Business Insider previously reported that construction may resume soon. Bodie, California, is just a few hours south of the popular vacation town of Lake Tahoe, but it feels like a step back in time to the Old West. This ghost town, which is now a state park, had its heyday during the California gold rush in the late 19th century. Today, the park aims to keep the town as authentic as possible. Every summer, the park offers nighttime ghost tours that take visitors to Bodie's church and year-old abandoned mill.

During the Cold War, the dome-like structures were added and used as US listening stations. Antennas and satellite dishes were built on the site in order to intercept radio signals from East Berlin. The futuristic-looking structures that stand in Flushing Meadows Corona Park actually date back to the early s, when they were built for the New York World's Fair in A dream team of architects, including Philip Johnson, Richard Foster, and Lev Zetlin, designed the complex, which includes observation towers, a theater, and a tent that once had a cable suspension roof.

While the fairgrounds have been empty for decades, a massive restoration of the complex that will make it suitable for visitors is currently underway. Built in , Nara Dreamland fell into disrepair after closing in due to dwindling visitor numbers, according to Atlas Obscura. Until , Centralia was just like any other coal mining town in central Pennsylvania. However, after a fire at a landfill spread to several local mines, the town became uninhabitable. As the fire grew, it moved through the mines and underneath the town, creating health safety issues for residents.

Today, Centralia is completely abandoned, although it is full of eerily empty streets, houses, and businesses. You can still see steam rising from the ground in many areas, including on an abandoned strip of road that has become known as "Graffiti Highway. Many mining towns were built quickly and cheaply in order to allow miners to start working as soon as possible. This was the case in Garnet, Montana , a 19th-century town that was once home to 1, Garnet is now known as Montana's best-preserved ghost town.

There are campgrounds nearby for people looking to get an overnight experience. This hillside ghost town was founded in the 8th century and sits on a cliff that's 1, feet off the ground. The city emptied due to various natural disasters. In , many evacuated after a landslide; in , a flood made conditions even more precarious; and in , an earthquake caused the town to be abandoned in its entirety. A locked gate surrounds the city, so visitors must book a guided tour. Thanks to a miraculously unscathed statue of the Virgin Mary, the town hosts various religious festivals throughout the year.

And despite the fact that the area is a ticking time bomb, the city has been used for several films, including "Passion of the Christ. Located in northeastern Spain near the French border, the Canfranc International Railway Station was once a luxurious and architecturally beautiful stop for those traveling Europe by train. However, the station was taken over by the Nazi regime in the early s, halting regular travel. After World War II, a train crash in the s damaged the tracks, causing another closure.

While the building is no longer utilized as a rail station, parts of the station are now used as a laboratory by the Spanish government. However, after the ship was retired in the s, it took on an entirely new purpose. The ship was abandoned in Homebush Bay in Sydney, not far off shore. Plants began to grow on what remained of the ship's hull, which eventually turned into a lush forest. Today, you can spot fully grown mangrove trees on the abandoned ship, providing a unique contrast with the hull's rusted exterior.

This empty boys school in Berkshire , New York, has been abandoned since the late '80s, after a high-profile child abuse case came out and forced the school's closure. A photographer who visited the building told Daily Mail , "I felt emotional as I walked around. I wondered what terrible things had happened in the rooms which are now eerily empty. It's horrible to even imagine. Once a sprawling campus with stately buildings, Letchworth Village is a now-defunct mental institution that has fallen into deep decay. Despite being ahead of its time it tested the first polio vaccines in the s it closed in , after years of reports of abuse and horrible conditions.

While most of the buildings are covered in graffiti both inside and out, it is still possible to view some aspects of the original architecture and uses for specific hospital buildings. Elizabeth Taylor and Brigitte Bardot both visited Varosha, a town on the island of Cyprus, back in its prime, according to the Daily Mail. However, after Turkish troops invaded and occupied the region in , hotels and businesses lost their customers and became vacant. Today, many beachfront hotels still stand, overlooking the ocean, although they remain empty.

Ersin Tatar, prime minister of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, said he has plans to reopen and rebuild the resort. Spreepark was built as a dinosaur-themed amusement park by the communist government outside of Berlin in While the park's popularity flourished in its early years, it was finally closed down in due to a lack of interest. While many abandoned buildings and parks are closed off to visitors, guided tours of the ruins of Spreepark are available.

Hashima Island was once known for its undersea coal mines, which began operations in The island hit peak population in with over 5, residents mineworkers and their families , but once the mines started to run dry in , most people left, according to Lonely Planet. The once-thriving island is now completely abandoned. The island, however, was featured as a villain's lair in the Bond movie, "Skyfall. This abandoned building has served a lot of different purposes.

It was originally built by French aristocrats who were fleeing the guillotine , later became an orphanage, and is now just a ruin. Built in the early s, Gwrych Castle once had a total of rooms , including 28 bedrooms, an outer hall, an inner hall, two smoke rooms, a dining room, a drawing room, a billiards room, an oak study, and a range of accommodations for servants. Although the castle has long been vacant , it was bought several years ago with the intention of being converted into an opera house and luxury hotel, but those plans never came through. Once home to children, classrooms, dormitories, playrooms, a dining hall, and other facilities, Holy Family Orphanage closed its doors in A plethora of urban legends and stories surround the orphanage, including the mistreatment and death of some of the children housed there over the years.

Some say you can still hear the children playing. The spooky building has been turned into apartments for residents who are brave enough to move in. The Moynaq Ship Graveyard is a ghost town in the middle of the Uzbekistani desert, almost miles away from the nearest shore. Once one of the four largest lakes in the world it was 26, square miles , the Aral Sea dried up when the rivers feeding it were diverted for irrigation purposes in the s. The Willard Asylum for the Chronic Insane opened its door in , after Dorothea Dix's investigation into the treatment of the mentally ill found that most were treated poorly.

It was one of the largest mental hospitals in the United States. The first patient to arrive was Mary Rote, who was brought in in chains. By , the asylum was home to over 2, patients. The asylum closed its doors in due to a push for de-institutionalization, and was left abandoned. Hundreds of suitcases were found later : remnants from the people who once lived there, filled with photographs and keepsakes. The basilica was first built in by Prince Vratislav I. In , following a major fire, the church had to be rebuilt. But it continued to suffer from fires and damage, and eventually fell into disrepair after World War II.

The church kept deteriorating, and in the ceiling collapsed during a funeral , which residents took as a bad omen. It's been abandoned since. However, in art student Jakub Hadrava used the church as a canvas for his senior project. He created ghostly figures to fill the pews, which turned the abandoned church into somewhat of a tourist attraction. This 20 mile-railroad was built in as a passenger and freight railway. It was used by freight trains until but has been abandoned since. Some of its stations have been turned into bars, restaurants, and municipal buildings, however, it is mostly overgrown and inhabited by wildlife. Amateur builder R. Bishop purchased 14 acres in North Toledo in and transformed the land into an amusement park that he called "Enchanted Forest Playland.

Despite Bishop's hopes, attendance never picked up enough to sustain the park, and five years after its grand opening, the Enchanted Forest Playground officially shut down. Many of the attractions have been sold off. Rhyolite, one of Nevada's largest ghost towns, was formed in during the Gold Rush. However, the gold ran dry and its mines closed in ; the town was abandoned by Rhyolite has been restored multiple times for Western movies over the years. If you visit Rhyolite now, you'll see the remains of the bank, the town jail, and the restored Bottle House , a house made from 50, glass beer bottle bottoms. The original architect Tom Kelly built his house out of beer bottles because there were not many other construction materials in the desert town.

World globe An icon of the world globe, indicating different international options. Get the Insider App. Click here to learn more. A leading-edge research firm focused on digital transformation. Ciara Appelbaum and Frank Olito. From castles to churches, structures all over the world have been left to waste away. Some were left empty after radioactive disasters or volcanic eruptions forced residents to flee, while others fell into disrepair after changes in government led to shortages in funds. Here are 55 locations, including residential buildings, places of worship, venues, and entire towns, that remain abandoned. Visit Insider's homepage for more stories.

Kolmanskop, Namibia, was once an opulent mining town. Note: students pursuing senior projects see below may only count one semester toward their elective requirement. Optional Senior Project in Anthropology: To be eligible for departmental honors, students must complete an independent research project of at least one semester. This typically consists of either a one-semester senior project ANTH , one credit, usually pages or a two-semester senior project ANTH , two credits, usually pages.

Students who wish to work on a project for more than one semester must present their progress for review by two professors who will decide whether the project qualifies for extended study. A one-semester project can be either in the fall or spring semesters; a two- semester project is usually in the fall and winter semesters or in the winter and spring semesters. Variation from these patterns is possible by permission from the department. Senior project requirements for joint majors and other special circumstances will be approved in consultation with both departments. An ANTH project requires a project advisor. If the advisor thinks that the project may deserve an A- or A, a second reader must evaluate the project.

An ANTH project requires a committee including the project advisor and a second reader from within the Anthropology Department. It may also include an optional, third reader from another part of the College or the local community. Upon completion of the ANTH project, there will be an oral defense. Departmental Honors: Students who earn an A- or higher on a or project and average an A- or higher in all Anthropology courses receive departmental honors.

No courses may be taken outside of the regular fall and spring semesters at Middlebury e. Other anthropology courses and anthropology courses in other departments can count with approval from the Anthropology Chair. Existing courses as of Jan. Joint Majors in Anthropology: Joint majors consist of seven courses in Anthropology. Students must take one 1 course at the level, two level courses, or or , , one level seminar, and one elective. No more than one course may be taken outside of the regular fall and spring semesters at Middlebury e. No more than two electives may be taken outside of the regular fall and spring semesters at Middlebury e.

Sociology and Anthropology once existed as a combined department. They are now separate departments, but they have retained the same course numbers e. Students who became SOAN majors or minors prior to Fall may follow the original requirements, reproduced below. The original major and minor descriptions are as follows:. No more than two electives may be introductory level courses. Students must also take a level seminar. In addition, anthropology track majors will take five electives, of which at least four must be anthropology, and of which at least one must be in archaeology or linguistic anthropology.

In addition, sociology track majors will take six electives, of which at least five must be sociology, and of which at least one must be a sociology course at the level. No more than one elective may be taken outside of the regular fall and spring semesters at Middlebury e. Any departures from this program must be approved by the department chair. Anthropology Minor: SOAN and four elective courses in SOAN, no more than one of which can be at the level and no more than one of which can be a sociology course.

Sociology Minor: SOAN and four elective courses in SOAN, no more than one of which can be at the level and no more than one of which can be an anthropology course. This typically consists of either a one-semester senior project SOAN , one credit, usually pages or a two-semester senior project SOAN , two credits, usually pages. A one-semester project can be either in the fall or spring semesters; a two-semester project is usually in the fall and winter semesters or in the winter and spring semesters. A SOAN project requires a project advisor. Upon completion of the SOAN project, there will be an oral defense.

The Arabic major requires four years of language study or their equivalent. Majors must also choose one disciplinary concentration: Arabic literature, Arabic linguistics, or a well-defined course of study with a focus on the Arab world. Each disciplinary concentration requires the completion of at least three content courses, including one introductory methods course specific to the chosen discipline. Majors are also required to prepare a project or a thesis for their senior capstone experience.

Major in Arabic: Minimum number of courses: 13, including required senior work. Arabic level courses taken at a Middlebury school abroad site require departmental approval of the syllabus and a dossier of all written work normally consisting of at least two exams and eight typed pages of Arabic ;. The Arabic Department strongly recommends that students spend a full year abroad. Students studying abroad for a full academic year may count at most one course taken abroad towards the disciplinary elective requirements, subject to prior approval of their major advisor and contingent upon submission of the syllabus and a dossier of all written work normally consisting of at least two exams and six typed pages of Arabic.

A major may count level courses towards the fulfillment of the disciplinary electives once the level language course requirement in 2 is complete. Senior projects and theses may be written in English, but must demonstrate significant use of Arabic sources. Senior theses will include a word summary in Arabic. Only one of the two courses on Arab culture or Arabic linguistics may be taken abroad. See above for guidelines regarding courses taken at schools abroad and at the summer Language Schools.

Required for the Major : Requirements for the biology major encourage both breadth across the subdisciplines of biology as well as depth in areas of interest. The introductory sequence includes two courses, BIOL Ecology and Evolution and BIOL Cell Biology and Genetics, both of which are designed for students in their first year at the college who are considering a major in the life sciences, or for whom an in-depth coverage of the life sciences is of interest.

The twelve courses required for the Biology major consist of:. One college-level chemistry course with laboratory. AP credit in chemistry or a bypass examination cannot be used to satisfy this requirement. Departmental courses offered with laboratories must be taken with the laboratory to satisfy major or joint major requirements. Joint Majors: The Department of Biology does not offer joint majors other than the joint major in Biology and Environmental Studies described below. Requirements for the Neuroscience Major: See the listing for the Program in Neuroscience for a description of this major. Requirements for the Joint Major with Environmental Studies: See the listing for the conservation biology focus under the Program in Environmental Studies.

Graduate or Professional Training: Students considering graduate or professional school in the life sciences should note that many programs require a year of introductory chemistry, a year of organic chemistry, a year of physics, and a year of calculus for admission. Students are therefore strongly encouraged to meet with their faculty advisors early in their undergraduate career so the advantages of taking additional courses in the natural sciences can be discussed.

Departmental Honors: Students with an average of 3. The Biology Department awards two levels of honors: honors and high honors. Criteria for Honors: Students with an average of 3. Criteria for High Honors: High honors will be awarded to students who meet all of the criteria for honors and who, in addition, have completed theses of exceptionally high quality. Determination of honors or high honors is based on a formal recommendation from the thesis committee, and requires the approval of the Biology Department faculty. Normally, research for thesis projects begins during the first term of a student's senior year or during the preceding summer.

Students interested in field research should talk with a faculty member by winter term of their junior year. All other prospective thesis students should consult with prospective advisors concerning possible thesis projects by spring term of their junior year. Thesis projects must be of at least two terms' duration one term of BIOL or BIOL and one of BIOL and result in the production of a written thesis, a public presentation of the thesis research, and an oral defense of the thesis before a committee of at least three faculty members, two of whom must be Biology faculty.

With instructor approval, independent research conducted during the summer may be considered as a substitute for the first term of the project. The thesis grade reflects performance in all aspects of the thesis process. Note that although completion of a thesis is one prerequisite for receiving honors, students may undertake a thesis regardless of whether they meet the other criteria for honors. Advanced Placement Credit : Middlebury College grants one college credit for a score of 5 on the biology advanced placement exam.

However, because the biology department does not offer any introductory course that is the equivalent of an AP biology course, advanced placement credit does not exempt a student from any of the published requirements for the major, minor, or joint majors, nor can it satisfy the college's distribution requirement. Off-Campus Study : Students interested in taking biology courses off campus are strongly encouraged to discuss their plans with their advisor early in their college careers. Students seeking approval for biology courses taken off campus should be prepared, upon their return, to document course content with syllabi and class notes.

The following restrictions apply to all biology courses transferred to Middlebury:. The Black Studies Program allows students to explore a wide range of topics related to Black experiences across the African Diaspora. The Program's major and minor allows students to attain degrees of mastery by concentrating on an interrelated set of topics within a geographic area or by comparing aspects of the topic s inter-regionally or globally.

Three required core courses will provide the framework on which students will organize their own majors in consultation with the program's director. Four 4 that acquaint students with Black studies as a recognized field of study. Four 4 clustered courses that concentrate on a region or topic either of which may be comparative. The remaining four elective courses must inform, complement, and complete the joint major. Majors : Students can elect to major in chemistry, biochemistry, environmental chemistry joint major , or molecular biology and biochemistry. Students who are interested in completing a senior thesis project should meet with their academic advisor for guidance in seeking a research advisor no later than winter term of their junior year.

Although required for departmental honors, students may also participate the senior thesis program without pursuing honors and the associated coursework. Eligibility for Honors in Chemistry or Biochemistry: Students who successfully complete the honors coursework—including the senior thesis program—with a minimum grade point average of 3. High Honors may be awarded at the discretion of the department and the thesis committee to students who demonstrate exceptional achievement in both the thesis program and departmental course work. Recommended Programs of Study: Several coursework options for students considering chemistry or biochemistry as a major are shown below. Completing CHEM as early as possible provides the maximum flexibility both within the major and for other academic interests, including study abroad.

CHNS is a one-semester course that may be taken during the fall or winter. The Chinese department discourages students from postponing completion of senior work until the final semester of full-time study. A joint thesis or project should, when feasible, combine the two fields of study of the joint major. All senior work should focus on Chinese literature; qualified students may petition the Chair for permission to do senior work on other aspects of Chinese culture e. Departmental Honors : Both full and joint majors may qualify for honors. Only courses that satisfy or could potentially satisfy major requirements count toward honors i.

High honors will be awarded for a grade point average of 3. Highest honors are reserved for students who earn a grade of A on the senior thesis and who have an average of 3. International and Global Studies Major with Chinese Language: Along with other required courses and senior work as described in the International and Global Studies major section, the Chinese language component of an IGS major requires completion of the following: 1 completion of CHNS or the equivalent students are strongly encouraged to complete CHNS or the equivalent before study abroad, preferably in the summer Chinese School ; 2 one semester at one of the three C. Required for the major in Classics: A. Ten courses in two languages: Greek and Latin normally six in one language and four in the other including one senior seminar CLAS Two additional courses in classics in translation, one from each of the following categories: 1.

Note: Students who wish to do an optional senior essay or independent senior project must secure the sponsorship of a member of the classics department in the semester before the essay or project is to be undertaken. Note: A student who does an optional senior essay or independent senior project may arrange with the chair, in the semester prior to undertaking the project, to offer that grade in lieu of the grade for CLAS for the calculation of departmental honors. Joint Major: Students interested in a joint major in Classics and another discipline should consult the chair.

The joint major in Classics typically requires ten courses in Greek and Latin normally six in one language and four in the other ; CLAS , and senior work that combines Classics with the other major. Required for the Minor in Classics: The minor in classics may be configured in one of the following four ways: 1. Note: No more than one course credit will be granted, whether the student presents one or two AP exams. Study Abroad Guidelines: Study abroad in the Mediterranean can enrich our majors' experience of the ancient world, because it affords them the opportunity to see the places that they have been learning about in the classroom. Students also find it stimulating to be surrounded by people with similar interests from other institutions.

Thus, while our curriculum does not in any way necessitate study abroad, the faculty is happy to work with students who wish to pursue it as part of their Middlebury degree in classics or classical studies. For those students who want to go abroad, we strongly recommend a semester rather than a year. Admission to the ICCS in particular, however, is highly competitive, and students may have a compelling academic rationale for studying elsewhere. Accordingly, we have also approved students who wished to study for a semester at foreign universities with strong classics departments.

For some students, a rewarding alternative to study abroad during the academic year has been participation in a summertime archaeological excavation. We discourage students from going abroad before they have had at least three semesters of whichever ancient language s they are learning. As part of their program of study abroad, students normally take at least one course in each ancient language of study, and select additional courses that are appropriate substitutes for courses in the major. In order to be fully prepared for senior work, however, students will need to have completed a significant portion of the courses required for the major, in particular CLAS , before going abroad.

Generally speaking, we are as flexible as we can be in helping majors to identify courses in programs abroad that allow them to stay in step with their cohort in Middlebury and to be prepared for senior work. Unless we are familiar with the institution, the instruction, and the content of the courses, we rarely grant credit to non-majors for classics courses taken away from Middlebury. In all cases majors, non-majors, potential majors, and minors , students must consult with a member of the classics department before leaving Middlebury to plan and receive approval for work done at other institutions.

Note : Students who wish to do an optional senior essay or independent senior project must secure the sponsorship of a member of the classics department in the semester before the essay or project is to be undertaken. For complete descriptions of the courses listed above, see listings under the appropriate departments. Joint Major: Students interested in a joint major in Classical Studies and another discipline should consult the chair.

The Comparative Literature curriculum emphasizes language learning as the basis for the study of literary texts. During their course of study, students of Comparative Literature will also become familiar with current comparative methodologies as well as relevant cultural and critical theories. The program is designed to accommodate students at all levels of language proficiency. Majors in Comparative Literature will develop a plan of study with the guidance of a faculty advisor with expertise in the students chosen primary language and literature, and the Director of the Comparative Literature Program. Four courses in a secondary language.

For example, English cannot be the primary language of a student whose first language is English, but it can be the secondary language. Honors : To be eligible for honors students must have a GPA in the major of 3. Students with eligible honors theses will also have a defense before the last day of exams. Computer Science is a rich and dynamic discipline that seeks to understand and use effectively the great potential of computing. The Department of Computer Science offers a wide variety of courses that integrate computer science into the liberal arts curriculum.

The major provides students with a solid background in algorithmic reasoning, problem solving, design and organization of modern computers and programming languages, and the ability to apply computational thinking to different applications and problem domains. For students entering Middlebury in Fall or later, requirements are as follows:. Departmental Honors : A grade of "B" or higher in the senior seminar CSCI is required for all levels of honors honors, high honors, and highest honors. In addition, a fifth elective numbered or higher and a GPA of at least 3. Advanced Placement and Waivers : Students whose preparation indicates they can bypass one or more courses numbered or lower should speak to a faculty member to determine the appropriate first course, and with approval of the department chair may waive the bypassed classes from the major requirements.

Requirements for students who matriculated prior to Fall Computer Science is a rich and dynamic discipline that seeks to understand and use effectively the great potential of computing. The major can be completed through two tracks. The traditional track provides students with a solid background in algorithmic reasoning, problem solving, design and organization of modern computers and programming languages, and the ability to apply computational thinking to different applications and problem domains. The interdisciplinary track first provides a solid background in computer science including algorithms and data structures, and then allows students to apply this knowledge to specific problem domains in related disciplines and to forge interdisciplinary connections.

For double majors, these courses may not come from the other major. The remaining electives can be chosen from any CSCI courses at the level or above. In consultation with computer science faculty, students will develop a proposed set of courses to count towards the interdisciplinary major, and will submit their proposed list to the department chair by the end of their third semester for approval by the CS faculty. Departmental Honors : Required for honors are: 1. A grade of "B" or higher in the senior seminar CSCI , which contains a significant independent project; 2.

An extra CSCI course in addition to the 11 courses required for the major; 3. The required extra course can be any CSCI elective at the level or above for regular honors, while high and highest honors require the senior thesis CSCI Advanced Placement and Waivers : First-year students whose secondary preparation indicates they can bypass one or more beginning courses should speak to a faculty member to determine the appropriate first course. College credit is given to students who achieve a score of 4 or 5 on the AP computer science A exam.

Consistent with its liberal arts mission, the Dance Program offers a rich set of eight foundational courses required of all Dance majors. Beyond these shared foundational courses, students take additional courses specific to one of three tracks: Choreography and Performance, Production and Technology, and Theory and Aesthetics. The complete requirements for each track foundational courses plus track-specific courses are as follows:. Z-Lab This track represents the core curriculum of the dance program for students primarily focused on contemporary approaches to technique, composition and performance.

The culminating senior work in this track will take the form a formal concert work and written thesis. This track represents a directed course of study for students primarily focused on the skills and methods of dance production and media, digital representations of the body, and current innovations and aesthetic models presented by the confluence of dance and the digital age. The culminating senior work in this track will involve all elements of the production of a design-focused concert work and a written thesis. This track represents a directed course of study for students interested in dance as a focus for scholarly work and theoretical inquiry by developing the ability to articulate the interdisciplinary and intercultural aspects of dance, as well as write about the potential of the moving body to both reflect and impact culture.

The culminating senior work in this track will take the form a public lecture and written thesis. Joint Major Requirements 1. Three semesters of technique and choreography at or above the level 5. Minor Requirements 1. Honors-Dance: Honors, high honors, or highest honors are awarded to graduating seniors in the dance program based upon a grade point average of A- or better in department and cognate courses, a grade of A- or better on the DANC Senior Independent Project, and overall distinction in the program. Normally only full majors will be eligible for highest honors. Required for the Major The economics major consists of a minimum of 11 approved courses in four sequences.

Economics electives taken during the winter term will count towards the major requirements only if so designated in the winter term catalog. Quantitative Sequence : The quantitative sequence in economics consists of two courses. The second course in the sequence is ECON Note: It is important, especially for those planning to study abroad for a full year, that the above three sequences be completed by the end of the sophomore year. The other two electives may be , , or level courses. The level courses are advanced electives exposing students to frontier research in specific subfields of economics that have intermediate theory as a prerequisite. The level courses are seminars that typically enroll no more than 16 students, have intermediate theory as a prerequisite, and serve as a capstone experience for the major.

Emphasis is placed on reading, writing, and discussion of economics at an advanced level. The purpose of this two-semester sequence is to foster independent student research, culminating in a research paper in the style of an economics journal article. Prior to enrolling in ECON , students must have taken a minimum of six economics courses at Middlebury approved to count towards the major requirements. Students who have prearranged a research topic with the professor will be given priority in admission to the seminar.

Also, because of limited resources for guiding senior work, students with a single major in economics will be given priority over double majors who will do senior work in other departments. For more detailed information on how the economics GPA is calculated, please contact the department coordinator. Joint Majors : The Department of Economics does not offer a joint major. It is possible to double major in Economics ECON and Environmental Policy ESEP , however, double counting of Economics courses towards each major is not allowed, except in cases where a specific course is listed as required by both majors. AP Credit Policy : To obtain credit, students will need to submit their official scores to the Registrar's Office and obtain approval from the department chair.

Students who score a 5 on the advanced placement exam in statistics are strongly encouraged to enroll in Economic Statistics ECON but they may choose to use their AP credit instead. Note: Students may not receive AP credit and course credit for the same course. Note: Students are required to complete an additional elective for each of these courses when a grade of B- or higher is not earned in the corresponding intermediate-level course. Students majoring in Economics will need to replace the other introductory course with an ECON elective. The same rules apply where ECON courses are requirements for other majors. Please notify the department coordinator if you have qualifying IB or A-Level scores in economics that you wish to use as a prerequisite.

Summer school courses will not generally be given credit for the major unless there is an overriding reason to take a summer school course. Any summer school course must meet a minimum of six weeks and have at least 36 hours of class time. Students planning to take courses off-campus should discuss the proposed course s with their advisor and get pre-approval from the department chair. Upon completion of the course s , students should submit their course material and a copy of their transcript along with a Transfer Credit Application Form to the department chair for departmental approval. No credit will be given for business courses taken over the summer. A maximum of one general credit will be given for a business course taken through a junior year abroad business program.

Business courses taken in a non-business program will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Those that match the department's offerings, and have strong liberal arts content, have the best chance of receiving credit. Post-Graduate Preparation Graduate programs in economics or finance [other than a Masters of Business Administration MBA ] generally require a high degree of mathematical sophistication.

Good training for graduate school might include being a statistics tutor or having worked as a research assistant at Middlebury College or at a Federal Reserve Bank, or as an intern at a research institute or NGO. Students thinking about this option should discuss their plans with their advisor and other faculty members.. Masters of Business Administration MBA programs look for students who have taken a wide range of courses across the curriculum rather than for students who have narrowly focused on economics and math.

Thus, it is not necessary for someone planning to go on in business or to an MBA program to have majored in economics. MBA programs normally expect that students have worked for a couple of years in business, government, or similar organization before they begin the MBA program. The appropriate coursework for these MBA programs is a wide range of liberal arts courses. Minor in Economics The Department of Economics does not offer a minor.

The study of Education necessitates an understanding of the reasons for the deep inequities that characterize education in the USA and other countries of the world. Through the investigation of educational theory, policy, research and practice from a variety of disciplinary perspectives students learn to think critically and creatively about the processes of teaching and learning and about the place of education in society. Effective fall , Education Studies offers a double-major for those students who seek teacher licensure in either elementary EDEL or secondary EDSL education and a minor in general education EDGW for those who are interested in the field of education, but who do not seek teacher licensure.

The double major option is available only to those students seeking teacher licensure. Requirements for the Double Major in Teacher Licensure Students interested in earning a Vermont teaching license should meet with the Director of the Education Studies Program as soon as possible in their course of study. The four, state-required elements that must be satisfactorily completed in order to be recommended for Vermont initial educator licensure are: i Relevant coursework that satisfies the content requirements of the endorsement, ii Professional Semester, iii Vermont Licensure Portfolio, and iv state required examinations such as Praxis.

The specific requirements for elementary and secondary teacher licensure are as follows:. Professional Semester Fall semester only; by application and approval : Students who elect to pursue licensure either in Elementary K-6 or Secondary education must apply to the Education Studies program for acceptance into the Professional Semester. The Professional Semester is a four credit, full-time, student teaching experience in a local school, with a master teacher, and under the supervision of a college designated supervisor. Education Studies faculty, in consultation with the student and prospective master teacher, make the final decision regarding where and with whom a student is placed for the Professional Semester.

Students may elect to complete the Professional Semester in either their senior year or in a ninth semester with the degree awarded following completion. Requirements for the minor in Education Studies EDGW Students interested in completing a minor in Education Studies should meet with a professor in the Education Studies Program to organize a thoughtful course of study. The Education Studies minor consists of five courses two of which are required and three of which are selected at the discretion of the student under consultation with an EDST faculty advisor.

There is no option for a major in general Education Studies. Students must complete three of the 5 required courses prior to enrolling in the Senior Seminar. Required for all students who matriculate fall and after. Students may seek to include a course that is not listed above, a course to be taken abroad or a Winter Term internship as one of the five courses. In each instance, students must secure prior approval from Education Studies faculty for such a course to fulfill the requirements for the minor. These requirements are intended to offer students broad and historically grounded training in the discipline as well as a range of different pathways through the major.

Students should confer closely with their advisers concerning their choices of electives. In addition, students will choose at least five electives from the available offerings, making sure that these courses satisfy the following requirements one elective may be a CRWR course :. See Major Requirements, above, for more description of these course requirements. We strongly recommend that these classes be taken in the same semester, with the understanding that a central goal of the joint major is the thorough integration of both aspects of the joint major.

A single-credit, single-semester joint project remains an option for those who wish to pursue a joint thesis that does not include a practical component such as acting or directing. A single course may fulfill more than one distribution requirement. All students will participate in an oral defense of their work with the adviser and second reader of the project. Students are encouraged to complete their Advanced Seminar requirement before embarking on their senior work. Students must have a minimum 3. Honors : Departmental honors will be awarded to those students who achieve a departmental GPA of 3.

Departmental GPA is calculated by counting all ENAM courses and other courses used to fill requirements for the major including those taken abroad or at other institutions , and the Honors Thesis grade. Requirements for the Major : Students majoring in English and American Literatures will take a total of 11 classes in the ENAM department transfer credits from other institutions must be approved. Students will then choose nine electives from the available course offerings, making sure that these courses satisfy the following distribution requirements.

Creative writing classes do not fulfill ENAM major requirements. Students should plan to complete an advanced seminar prior to beginning a critical honors thesis project. In addition, students will choose at least five electives from the available offerings, making sure that these courses satisfy the following distribution requirements. A single course may fulfill more than one distribution requirement:. Requirements for the Minor : Students minoring in English and American Literatures will take a minimum of six courses, including ENAM or CMLT and five electives, chosen carefully to satisfy the following distribution requirements. Applicable to new majors only; those declaring an ENAM major prior to January may choose to write a thesis even if their departmental GPA is below 3.

Courses for Non-Majors : The Department of English and American Literatures offers a wide variety of courses in literature that are open without prerequisite to all students in the college. These include most and level courses and some level courses. The or level courses are recommended for students, primarily in their first or second years, with interests in comparative, thematic, and theoretical approaches to literature.

They are especially suitable for meeting the colleges Literature LIT distribution requirement. Students matriculating Fall or later must follow these requirements. Students matriculated prior to Fall have the option to follow these requirement or the [ previous requirements ]. Except for transfer students, the environmental studies core courses must be taken at Middlebury College.

With the approval of the Environmental Studies program director, a maximum of one course taken off campus may be credited toward completion of other e. Students may pursue a joint major between environmental studies and other majors. The other major usually overlaps the student's focus and represents additional coursework in the focus. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the environmental studies major, there is no reduction in course requirements for the environmental studies component of a joint major.

Major in Environmental Studies : The environmental studies major is composed of course work in four areas: four environmental studies core courses ; courses in a focus area ; two environmental cognate courses ; and an integrative capstone experience. Except for transfer students, the core courses and capstone experience must be Middlebury College courses, which for the purposes of the Environmental Studies major are defined as those offered by the undergraduate college during fall, winter, spring, and summer terms. The student's advisor must approve any non-Middlebury College courses within the focus area; the ES Director must approve any non-Middlebury College courses within the rest of the major.

A maximum of three non-Middlebury College courses may be credited toward completion of the major. ENVS should be completed by the end of the sophomore year; all core courses must be completed by the end of the junior year. Only those students who have completed the core courses are eligible to enroll in advanced integrative work. Focus Course Requirements Majors must complete the course requirements for one of 17 established foci.

Foci fall into one of four academic divisions: arts, humanities, natural sciences, and social sciences. These divisions govern which cognate courses a student may take. Courses taken within the focus that are not specified must be approved by the student's advisor. As indicated, some foci automatically qualify the student for joint major status. Environmental Studies foci are as follows specific requirements for each can be found further below :. Cognate Course Requirements Two cognate courses must be selected from the approved list of cognates , subject to the following:. Not all approved cognates are offered each semester. Please check with relevant departments regarding course offerings.

Advanced Integrative Capstone Requirement After completing the required core courses, majors must complete the community-engaged environmental studies practicum ENVS , open to juniors and seniors. Majors who are not required to complete independent senior work in their focus may, in consultation and approval of an advisor, apply to complete optional senior independent work in ENVS. All senior independent work carried out in ENVS or toward honors eligibility i. In consultation with the thesis committee, students may present as part of the Spring Research Symposium or as a separate event arranged with the committee and ES Program. Note: This joint major does not result in a professional degree in architecture.

Students wishing to pursue graduate study in architecture are advised to take additional science and math courses and should consult with their advisor. Environmental Studio Art : One or level drawing course; HARC strongly suggested or other approved substitute in the history of art-practice; ART ; four electives in studio art, three of which must be at the level; ART The crew requirement must be completed by the end of the 5 th term and will normally be satisfied by undertaking a running crew assignment on a for-credit production; the requirement may also be fulfilled by stage managing a faculty show, or by completing THEA or THEA Religion track: Four RELI level courses of which, at least, two should focus either on a particular religious tradition e.

Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism or on a particular geographic area e. Students with strong comparative interests in both religion and philosophy should consult with their advisor. Students wishing to pursue graduate study in chemistry are advised to take additional science and math courses and should consult with their advisor. Students wishing to pursue graduate study in geology are advised to take additional science and math courses and should consult with their advisor. Environmental Justice: ENVS EJ in the Anthropocene ; one course from the foundations list ; three courses from the electives list ; and two courses from the advanced list.

Substitute or additional courses not listed here, including Winter Term courses and off-campus courses, may count toward the focus with the approval of an ESEJ faculty adviser. This is a social science-based focus, so majors in ESEJ follow the cognate course requirements for the social science division. Environmental Studies-Geography joint major : GEOG ; four elective courses at the or level, at least one of which must be at the and one at the level; and one level seminar. Environmental Studies - Anthropology joint major. Students pursuing senior work may only count one semester towards their elective requirement. Any departures from this program must be approved by the Anthropology department chair. Other Environmental Perspectives For students interested in studying the environment from perspectives for which there is not an established focus e.

Students are also encouraged to consider the possibility for intersecting study abroad opportunities with their goals and interests. Finally, students might consider completing a minor in environmental studies alongside a major of their choice. Students are encouraged to meet with the ES Director or with faculty advisors who advise for foci related to their interests to discuss their options. Courses counting toward the GPA in the major include core courses, courses taken in fulfillment of focus with the exception of senior thesis courses i.

If extra cognates or courses within the focus were taken, those with the highest grades will be applied toward completion of the major and toward the GPA calculation for honors eligibility. Major Requirements : Students must complete ten courses to satisfy the requirements for a major in Film and Media Culture. Before declaring a Film and Media Culture major, the student must have completed or be currently enrolled in one of the basic core courses. The basic core courses should be completed by the end of the junior year.

Electives: Four additional FMMC courses, with at least two of these being critical studies or history courses. With the prior permission of a student's academic advisor, one winter term FMMC course may be counted as an elective. Independent study courses will typically not count as an elective unless approved by the department chair for exceptional circumstances. Students taking courses focused on film and media taught in a foreign language, either at Middlebury or abroad, may request major elective credit from their advisor.

Note that courses may not count toward both FMMC and another department's major or minor. Courses transferred from other institutions will normally count only as an elective toward the FMMC major, not to fulfill core requirements. In addition, minors must take three additional courses that are listed or cross-listed as FMMC. At least one of the three electives must be at the or level. At least one of the three electives must be a critical studies or history course. Joint Major: The joint major with FMMC is a combination of two disciplines, culminating in a joint senior project; the plan for joint majors is negotiated between the student and the two departments in which the joint program of study is pursued at the time of declaring the joint major.

The senior project must combine aspects of both majors and in most cases will require approval, supervision, and evaluation from either departments or programs. The Film and Media Culture part of the joint major requires a minimum of seven courses, including four level FMMC core courses, a level theory course, FMMC Film and Media Senior Tutorial or the equivalent senior project course in the other department , and any courses required or appropriate prior to undertaking the joint senior project.

Students who wish to write a screenplay for their joint senior project are required to take FMMC Writing for the Screen I and FMMC Writing for the Screen II; additionally, their screenwriting project must be tied to literary topics or issues including adaptation. Honors: The faculty of Film and Media Culture will award honors to select students based on their overall excellence in film and media coursework with a minimum GPA of 3. Food Studies is an interdisciplinary area of study that integrates environmental, social, health, economic and cultural issues stemming from food systems activities food production, distribution, access, consumption, waste management in a systems framework.

Middlebury students can minor in Food Studies, or submit an Independent Scholar proposal if they want to go more deeply into Food Studies than the minor or another department's major will allow. The minor requires completion of 5 courses, distributed as indicated below, and an immersive learning experience. Bold-faced courses are those typically offered every year. Natural Sciences and Geography. OR an Independent Study or level on a topic selected by the student and supervised by a Food Studies affiliated faculty member, integrating issues relevant to Food Studies. This may be an internship through the FoodWorks Fellowship Program, one of the Food Tracks offered through Study Abroad, or independent , service-learning associated with a course, or an independent study connected with a community-based organization.

If courses allow students to do independent research, students are expected to use the opportunity to explore food or agricultural issues. Students are strongly encouraged to take advantage of international study, and to take courses relevant to the Food Studies minor while abroad. Courses may be substituted for the introductory or elective courses with the approval of the program director. Approval requires submission of a petition form found here. Approval of a course for minor credit requires the student to show that they made connections between the course material and their study of Food Studies, for example by writing a final paper on a food systems or agricultural topic.

Students must turn in this paper or other approved course material for review for credit. To declare the minor, these materials must be submitted at least one week before the end of the add period of your seventh semester at Middlebury. All courses for the major must be taught in French. One course on the history of France or a Francophone region or country. One unit of senior work, usually a senior seminar FREN level. During their senior year, majors must take at least one advanced course Category IV in French at Middlebury in addition to the senior seminar. All majors study abroad for a semester or a year in a French-speaking country. The year program carries nine units of credit; the semester program carries four or five units of credit.

In order to ensure that students are exposed to a variety of disciplines, no more than five units full-year program or three units semester program may be counted toward the French and Francophone Studies major. Most courses in France will be at the advanced level. The French and Francophone Studies Department does not offer a joint major. The minor may include courses taken at the Middlebury School in France or the School in Cameroon maximum of two from the semester program, three from the full-year program. Students electing the French minor are encouraged to consult with faculty members in the French Department about course planning. Students with a College Board AP score of 4 or 5 will receive one unit of credit toward graduation if the first course successfully completed at Middlebury is FREN or above in accordance with placement and departmental advising.

AP credits may not be counted toward the major or minor. Senior Work : Upon completing at least two level courses in French or Francophone studies, majors are required to complete senior work consisting of a significant research paper in the context of a senior seminar level. Honors : Exceptional students with a grade point average in French and Francophone Studies of 3. Eligible students should consult the departmental guidelines and present their proposals well in advance of registration for the term in which the work is to be started. The department will determine whether to award honors, high honors, or highest honors on the basis of a student's work in the department and performance on the senior honors project. International and Global Studies Major with French Language : Along with other required courses and senior work as described in the International and Global Studies Major section, completion of the French language component requires: 1 proficiency in French a minimum of two of FREN , FREN , FREN or work in the French summer school at the level or above ; 2 at least one semester, and preferably a year, at the Middlebury College School in France, or in Cameroon, or in another French-speaking country; and 3 one or more courses at the or level upon return from abroad.

New rules, available in the International and Global Studies section, apply to the Class of ] 1 Language proficiency: see above; 2 regional specialization: choose from FREN and courses at the level, or others Vermont campus , in consultation with the track director; courses in French or Francophone studies at Middlebury in France or in another French-speaking country; 3 disciplinary specialization: two courses from FREN , FREN , FREN ; three advanced French or Francophone studies courses at Middlebury or one of the Middlebury Schools in France; 4 at least one semester, and preferably a year, at the Middlebury College School in France or in another French-speaking country; and 5 one or more courses at the or level, or senior independent work in French, upon return from abroad.

Students planning to study in France or Cameroon must have completed two full years of college credit by the time they undertake their study abroad; they must have successfully completed at least one course beyond FREN previously FREN by the time they arrive abroad; and they must have an average in French of at least B. We expect all applicants to demonstrate their commitment to French and maintain their fluency by continuous study of French from the time of their enrollment at Middlebury and to maintain their academic level if they are accepted to study abroad. They are required to take a French course in the semester before study abroad. Students may count three courses from the semester program, five from the full year program toward a major in French; two courses from the semester program and three from the full year program toward a minor in French.

It should be noted that while students wishing to attend one of our programs in France or in Cameroon must demonstrate a level of proficiency in the language that will allow them to function successfully in the French or Cameroonian university setting, they need not be French majors: the C. Starr-Middlebury School in France Paris, Poitiers, and Bordeaux offers students the opportunity to take courses in history, history of art, economics, cinema, political science, psychology, sociology, studio art, the natural sciences, and the environment, among other disciplines, in addition to courses in languages and literature.

They will need to seek prior approval of School in France and School in Cameroon courses from the appropriate department chairs if they wish course work to count toward a specific minor or major. The Office of Off-Campus Study will provide information about the program and application forms. The major requires a minimum of ten courses and comprises several discrete aspects, as outlined below.

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