Biological Factors In Early Childhood
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Role of Biological Factors in Child Development - New Directions Counselling Services
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Included are the influences of culture, family, and the environment. The material in this course is designed as a foundation for teaching in the elementary school, nursing, early childhood education, and parenting. This course is an examination of the developing child in a societal context focusing on the interrelationship of family, school, and community and emphasizing historical and socio-cultural factors. This course offers students the opportunity to integrate theory into practice as they work on planning, implementing, and evaluating classroom activities, assessing individual children's strengths and learning needs, and participating in the routines of an early learning classroom.
In this supervised field experience course, students are enrolled in both a lecture and lab section. During weekly in-class meetings with the instructor, students are presented with the developmentally appropriate theory that grounds curriculum and interactions in high quality early childhood education classrooms. Students are required to take this theory into lab where they have the opportunity to apply and practice what they are learning in the lecture. Topics include the teacher's role in the development of curriculum based on observation and assessment of the individual needs of the children in the program.
The teacher's role in guidance and the development of social competence in children is stressed. The students will be assigned to the campus Child Development Center during specific times of the day for supervised laboratory experiences. Students may also complete up to 50 percent of their lab hours at off campus sites if they are employed at least 20 hours per week at the site. Students completing any hours at off campus sites must be under the direct supervision of a staff person eligible for or holding a Master Teacher Permit or higher level permit. This advanced practicum course provides supervised field experience in an early childhood education program. Students will participate as teachers in a classroom with young children and attend weekly lectures.
Students will plan and implement long-term curriculum projects with young children, applying their skills in observation, assessment, documentation, and interpretation of children's work. There is a deeper examination of how young children construct knowledge in literacy, math, science, and how teachers develop curriculum. Students will develop and supervise the overall setting for learning and demonstrate skill in guiding children's behavior, managing groups, and building relationships with children and families. Students will be assigned to the campus Child Development Center or approved programs for supervised field experience practicum.
This course is designed for teachers in early education programs to promote positive guidance methods. It is based on supporting children's development of social competence. The course includes strategies for understanding and responding to children's behavior in ways that are congruent with the core values of early childhood education. Concepts of guidance relating to typical and atypical development, culture, and environment will be presented.
Parents of young children may also find the course of value. This course is designed for students who have completed both ECE and and are working in a classroom as staff. The course supports students as they transition into taking responsibility for a classroom including ongoing curriculum development, assessment, guidance, and teaching to the needs of individual children. The course includes strategies for working with families and fellow staff members from diverse cultures and backgrounds.
It prepares teachers of young children to use observation, documentation, and interpretation strategies to improve program quality in early childhood settings. Multiple forms of child assessment and early childhood program assessment are explored. This course is an examination of the development of children from conception to three years of age. The course includes information on the brain development that occurs during the first three years of life in typically developing infants. The course presents research on physical, social, emotional, cognitive, and language development to assist parents and professionals in understanding the importance of infancy in human development. This course applies current research in infant development to the teaching and care of infants in group settings.
Emphasis is on early childhood education principles and practices as applied to the care and education of infants from birth to three years of age. It includes strategies for designing, implementing, and evaluating group care programs for infants. This class provides experience working with infants and toddlers in a group care program. Students must be supervised by a staff member holding the Master Teacher Permit or higher during their lab hours. Current clearances for tuberculosis and required immunizations are required prior to participating in lab hours.
The course is an introduction to the constructivist approach to teaching mathematics and science in early childhood education. The content and teaching techniques support the perspective that children construct knowledge through a dynamic, interactive process that facilitates their development of working theories relating to math and science. This course prepares early childhood educators to recognize, create, and support developmentally appropriate emergent language and literacy experiences of young children.
The knowledge of the stages of development in language and literacy will improve early childhood educators' abilities to support language and literacy in a play based curriculum. The course will address the development of language and literacy for children learning more than one language and children with special needs. The course emphasizes the importance of building a strong foundation in the use of language, both spoken and written prior to first grade. This course provides students an opportunity to explore the field of K-8 teaching and the career of teaching. The requirements and education required to attain a teaching credential will be examined. It includes a supervised structured field placement of three hours weekly minimum of 45 hours per semester in a local public elementary school with a college-approved certificated teacher.
The weekly class meetings focus on the profession of teaching, career selection, children's developmental domains and influences on development such as family, community, race, and culture. The students will practice and develop teaching skills in observation, communication, and cultural competency. Students' field experiences will integrate and apply the course content. This course is a study of the use of creative art and music in early childhood education programs. The appropriate use of art materials and music activities for children at different developmental stages will be the focus of the course.
Children's use of visual arts and music to represent their experiences and feelings will be examined as a developmental stage in the use of symbols and the development of literacy. Activities using music and movement to build community, share cultures and traditions, facilitate transitions, and in classroom management will be presented. The integration of art and music across the curriculum and the adaptation of these processes to support young children's overall development will be emphasized. This course is an overview of the developmental issues, characteristics, and learning differences of children from birth through adolescence with exceptional needs, including gifted and talented.
Current educational strategies, including assessment and curriculum design will be presented. Community resources, advocacy, and challenges for children with exceptional needs and their families will be examined. This course provides experience working in a school environment with children and youth who have disabilities. It is designed as a laboratory for those who have completed or are concurrently enrolled in ECE Environmental modifications including classroom, school, agency, and community settings are studied.
Classroom modifications in curriculum, assessment, behavior management, and instructional methods are examined. This course meets the requirement for special education in inclusive settings. Students must supply their own transportation to selected elementary school placements. This course is designed to acquaint the student with the characteristics of atypical infant assessment procedures and techniques for intervention in the developmental areas of sensory stimulation and integration, motor development, cognition, language, social, and self-help skills. The course will explore community services, agencies, career opportunities in fields related to the infant with atypical development.
This course provides supervised experience working with children with special needs in an inclusive early care and education setting. Topics include integration strategies, classroom environments, and individualized instructional strategies for children. Emphasis will be on creating modifications, accommodations, or adaptations to the environment. Students are required to attend a lab section each week where they have the opportunity to apply and practice what they are learning in the lecture section.
The students will be assigned to the Campus Child Development Center during specific times of the day for supervised laboratory experiences. The key components that ensure the health, safety, and nutrition of both children and staff will be identified along with the importance of collaboration with families and health professionals. Cortisol helps the body prepare for stressful and dangerous situation.
It gives a quick burst of energy, heightened memory and lower sensitivity to pain, among other things. Cortisol is usually bound to proteins in adults. The protein is called the corticosteroid-binding globulin CBG. Due to this occurrence, plasma and total cortisol levels increase. Newborns do not manifest typical adult circadian rhythms in cortisol production. Usually, newborns have peak cortisol levels every 12 hours and this does not depend on the time of day. As newborns progress through the early months of life, babies experience increased cortisol levels during medical examinations. This is physically characterized by the fussing and crying of babies.
However, babies can still respond to behavioral distress. These stressors include the approach of a stranger, strange events, few-minute separations from parents, and more. The physiological changes that may occur include improved negative feedback regulation of the HPA system, and decreased sensitivity of the adrenal cortex to ACTH. The effects of repeated increases in cortisol levels have been researched in many animal studies, but these types of controlled studies are not ethical to conduct in humans.
The hypothesized mechanism of action that causes permanent damage in the toxic stress theory is that excessive levels of cortisol may cause neuronal cell death, particularly in the hippocampus, which has relatively high levels of glucocorticoid receptors. Because children's brains are developing relatively more compared to later in life, there is concern that their brains might be relatively more vulnerable to stressors compared to adults.
Children who had experienced more intense and lasting stressful events in their lives posted lower scores on tests of spatial working memory. The region of the brain that is most affected by increased levels of cortisol and other glucocorticoids is the hippocampus. Research has found that infants and young children with higher cortisol levels produce smaller electrical changes in their brain when they are forming memories. Despite the concerns about the impact of stress and cortisol on developing brains, the existing data are inconsistent.
Some children manifest low levels of cortisol production under stress, and some experience high cortisol levels. While once concern is that children with higher levels of glucocorticoids may be prone to have the most problems with physical, social, mental, and motor development,  research has neither determined whether these effects are permanent, nor whether these associations would hold up under more rigorous prospective studies. Toxic stress is a term coined by pediatrician Jack P. Shonkoff of the Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University to refer to chronic, excessive stress that exceeds a child's ability to cope, especially in the absence of supportive caregiving from adults.
According to Shonkoff, extreme, long-lasting stress in the absence of supportive relationships to buffer the effects of a heightened stress response can produce damage and weakening of bodily and brain systems, which can lead to diminished physical and mental health throughout a person's lifetime. Extreme exposure to such toxic stress can result in the stress response system becoming more highly sensitized to stressful events, producing increased wear and tear on physical systems through over-activation of the body's stress response.
This wear and tear increases the later risk of various physical and mental illnesses. Stress may make the body more susceptible to infections, cardiovascular problems such as heart disease and high blood pressure, obesity , slower healing, viruses and gastrointestinal problems. When children cannot handle stress they may begin to develop emotional problems. They may become severely depressed , lacking in energy and motivation. Posttraumatic stress disorder may come about in children who have experienced stressors that are traumatic such as abuse or neglect.
Changes in mood or personality, increased irritability or aggressiveness are some psychological symptoms indicative of stress in children. Frustration, feelings of guilt or confusion, isolating themselves from family and friends. Children may also exhibit symptoms of anxiety. They may begin to have new fears and nightmares or even paranoia. Children under extreme stress tend to withdraw from their family and friends. Children may begin to struggle in school and on their assignments. Children may exhibit behavioral symptoms such as over-activity, disobedience to parental or caretaker's instructions. New habits or habits of regression may appear, such as thumb-sucking, wetting the bed and teeth grinding.
Children may exhibit changes in eating habits or other habits such as biting nails or picking at skin due to stress. Vincent Felitti from the Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization and Dr. Robert Anda from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention demonstrated the association of adverse childhood experiences ACEs with health and social problems as an adult. Is adolescence a sensitive period for sociocultural processing? Antagonistic interplay between hypocretin and leptin in the lateral hypothalamus regulates stress responses.
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