Reflective Essay: Lionville Middle School

Thursday, November 18, 2021 7:10:50 AM

Reflective Essay: Lionville Middle School



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Kachnu jsem mel u vas asi po pate, k jidlu byla jenom jednou. I dnes byla nedopecena, neocistena a do deklarovane gramaze mela opravdu velmi daleko. Problem with card registrationproblem s registrace karty - Dobry den. Ale mam problem z registrace karty protoze system registrace v tente Menze nepracuje. Pracovniky Menzy rekly ze bude pracovat az v prosincu a je to velmy dlouho. Prosim, nadejte me informace o nejke jine zpusoby registraceaktivace me karty. Pokud bych se potrebovaly me kontaktovat, prosim, piste na e-mail kurochka.

Dodavatel masa - Dobry den, jaky je prosim puvod masa, ze ktereho menza vari? Kdo ho dodava a jaka je zeme puvodu. Jsem spokojen a syt. Jiz bylo nakvasene a smrdelo. Chtelo by to asi mensi sudy, aby se casteji obmenovalo. Jak je to tu narazene vice dni, tak to nema sanci vydrzet. Chutove by se to dost zlepsilo. Nebo alespon na repkovem ci slunecnicovem oleji. Diky za odpoved. Pavel student. Grilovany hermelin pikant - Chtel bych se zeptat, jestli to, co vydavate za grilovany hermelin byl opravdu hermelin, nebo camembert.

Protoze jestli to byl hermelin, tak byl fakt hnusnej. Navrhoval by som: 1. Barva ani chut lososa neprimoninala ani vzdalene. Zmena receptur? Skoda, byla to skvela restaurace. Diky :. Snidane - Rano jsme dostali vynikajici snidani od skveleho usmevaveho personalu, za uzasnou cenu a moc nam chutnalo ;. Ach jo Smetanove brambory - Jako priloha k minutce opravdovy luxus.

PS: Nejsem student ;. Musim resit stravovani s bezlepkovou dietou a tak bych se chtela zeptat jestli neuvazujete o zavedeni bezlepkoveho jidla a jedne bezlepkove polevky. Urcite nejsem sama kdo tenhle problem resi a neustale dotazy na kuchare, kteri kolikrat ani nevedi jestli tam je lepek nebo ne nejsou prijemne ani jedne strane. S nekterymi to neni problem moc prijemne jsou pani kucharky ve vegete , ale nektere jsou velmi, velmi nevstricne. V nekterych menzach je jedno bezlepkove jidlo bezne, myslim ze by zavedeni bzl jidla urcite zlepsilo uroven menzy a tim i jeji povest. Obecne - Dobry den, Vase kuchyne je opravdu vyborna, jen bych chtel poprosit, mene solit : Slanky jsou na stolech, kazdy si prece prisoli podle chuti.

Dekuji a jsem s pozdravem. Kulajda - Dobry den, mel bych dotaz, zdali se zmenila priprava kulajdy, protoze uz to neni co bejvalo. Opravdu velmi, velmi moc. Velmi hrube nasekana cizrna bez spetky koreni nebo bylinek hozena do fritaku neni falafel. Zelenina v jogurtu by se este dala pochopit, ale proc tam byl i dalamanek? Chapu ze podivat se na internet je velmi pracne, tak jsem Vam nasel recept. Priste to snad bude lepsi Miguel Vargas. Research assistant. Abych si mohl koupit jidlo mi zbyvalo v tu chvili 15kc.

Mel jsem 40Kc v mincich, a ne-moc-mila pani pokladni po mne chtela alepson 50Kc, pres ktere nepojede vlak. Ma nejmensi bankovka mela nominalni hodnotu Kc. Pri pokusu zaplatit s ni, jsem byl odkazan pryc. Ze zakona mate povinnost prijmout bankovku v jakekoli hodnote paklize je platna. A pri cenach v menzach by bylo vhodne miti na mysli, ze se stokorunou toho clovek v menze mnoho nedostane, a do budnoucna se bude pravdepodobne platit bankovkama s vyssi nominalni hodnotou, adekvatni k cenam jidel a sluzeb. Paklize takto trvate na dodrzovani internich predpisu prijimani castek pouze a jenom v nasobcich po 50kc , prosim pak take o dodrzovani zakonu CR, kam patri i prijimani platnych bankovek.

Dekuji Adam. Kde to jsme? S pozdravem Kathy. A cena? Salek na caj - Stalo sa mi to uz podruhe za mesic, radeji si je kontrolujte zevnitr pred natankovanim caje. To bych si nikdy nedal. Mel me varovat jiz onen mastny vzhled omacky. Bohuzel to nechutnalo lip, nez jak to vypadalo. Omacka s kvetakem ma podivnou nedobrou chut, maso s flaxami a jeste k tomu mala porce a nemala cena. Tohle tedy jiz ne. OK Martin. Jinak jedno z tech lepsich "jidel" na KN.

To by jeste nebylo tak hrozne, ale on si nadal kndeliky holyma rukama a protoze jich vzali vic nez chtel tak tam zase jeden vratil co je toto za higienu. Krome toho ze mel porci tak asi dvakrat takovou jak se normalne dava tak si ji vzal a odesel rovnou do restaurace. Nezaplatil u pokladny a jeste si to prenesl jinam. Kdyz to chci ja prenest do restarace tak tam na me pomalu rvali ze je prenaseni jidel zakazane. Takove chovani personalu menzy se me vubec nelibi a zadam o nejakou napravu. Tohle je vysmech studentum.

Ale co? Vsechny lidla Prijde mi to jako by si ty ceny nekdo jen tak vymyslel. Cekat frontu 10 lidi abych se zeptal a pak si sel objednat k pokladne neco jinyho je dost neefektivni, Dekuji. Vcera se v menze toto jidlo moc nepovedlo- chutove dobre az na 1 chybu- nehorazne presole. Prestoze solim prumerne a mozna i trochu vice a v menze jsem se soli nikdy nemel problem tak toto jidlo bylo skutecne presolene. Nahlasil jsme to pani pokladni, ktera me presmerovala na tyto stranky. Dekuji za reakci. No co to je? Vzdyt to kazdou chvili jako dnes vecer nefunguje, seka se, jde pomalu Vzdyt na Strahove zije stovka lidi z IT oboru, ktery by to za vecere zdarma spravovali lepe S pozdravem. Pocet vydavajicich - Dobry den, mam velice rad menzu na karlaku bohuzel oproti strahovske..

Ty 2 pani tam maji dost fofr a rada je semtam velice dlouha, neslo by 1 pracovnic co myje nadobi semtam poslat k vydeji? Fronta od vstupnich dveri se bohuzel kazdodene opakuje a nemyslim si ze na karlaku je tak malo nadobi ze by hodinovy vypadek mycky zpusobil problem. Proto bych se chtel zeptat, jestli by nebylo mozne polevky o trochu mene solit, precijen - sul si kazdy muze dodat sam, odebrat jen tezko.

Asi tak polovina polevek co si davam byva vice ci mene presolena Vorlicek J. Ve skolni jidelne v nasem meste se sladke obedy tesily velike oblibe. Na vyber bylo pouze ze dvou jidel, ale temer kazdy den bylo jedno z nich sladke. Svatomartinska husi rolada - Originalni recept: "Na rozpalene maslo a olej vlozime cibuli, smazime 5 minut. Snizime teplotu a smazime dalsich 5min, pridame nakrajene susene svestky, nasekane oprazene kastany, pridame vyvar a varime min. Pridame nasekanou housku, cerstve bylinky a nechame kratce povarit, nechame vychladnout. Rozprostreme vykostenou husu potreme nadivkou, stocime do rolady, kterou stahneme provazkem. Uznavam, ze vzhledem k honosnemu nazvu je prostor pro improvizaci velky, nicmene to co mi bylo predlozeno kuchar nemohl myslet vazne.

Maly kousek husiho masa, velky kus mleteho same sadlo, kuze a vsechny dalsi zbytky co lze pridat a uprostred pekne odporna klobasa. Mohu Vas pozadat o recepturu, aby bylo mozno srovnat s originalem a take o cenovou kalkulaci? Rad bych vedel kolik dle Vas stal ten rozemlety hnus. Dekuji J. Caj - Chtel bych podekovat, ze se v menze objevil neslazeny cerny caj zdarma k jidlu. Veprove zebirko Robert,, knedliky houskove Takze jsem odesel s bagetou. Muzete mi prosim rict, proc je to zebirko tak drahe?? Kdyz srovnam dnesni hovezi gulas obed , vcerejsi jmenovane veprove nudlicky s bramborakem a uterni veprovy steak na cesneku s americkym bramborem oboji vecere , je mi do smichu a do place zaroven.

Steak byl vyborny, am. Naproti tomu vcerejsi veprove nudlicky a dnesni gulas byly velikosti porce na hranici reklamovatelnosti a vice nez tretinu "masa" tvoril odpad, ktery je povazovan za delikatesu snad jen v Mongolsku. Bramborak chutnal jak dva dny zmrazeny prumyslovy mismas oraty v mirkovlnce tentyz pokus o bramborak jsem potkal nedavno i ve vydejne na KN - je tohle vubec reklamovatelne? Jakub Fiser. Smazeny veprovy rizek, varene brambory,okurka To je nejaka prirazka ze se blizime k centru Prahy? Ale fajn, beru, ze je to "znackova" a vim, kolik normalne stoji. Ale spise nechapu, proc jsem v sobotu k obedu v menze na Masarykove koleji dostal tatarku 50 ml, zatimco na Strahove je za stejnou cenu pouze 30 ml. Je to chyba nebo zamer? Kdo to zase vymyslel, jedno z lepsich jidel, co restaurace nabizela a oni ho zrusi!

Chapu, ze takove kalamary, krevetky nebo treba rumpsteak si urcite da mnohem vice lidi :D :D Vase prodejni politika je velice zajimava. Druha vec mohli by mit taky otevrino od do jako kazda jina cvut menza. Vecere - Mohly by se zavest polovicni porce, hlavne minutky, na veceri je toho moc. Studenti potrebuji zdravou stravu, vitaminy a podobne latky, aby zvladali vypjate situace spojene se studiem Osatane ajkoo automaty se sladkostmi a nazdravymi bagetami, to je des. Oteviraci doba II - Chapu, ale neresi to moji otazku. Dostanu se na Strahov az kolem Zajima me, z jakeho duvodu byla zmenena provozni doba v restauraci. BTW na jidelnim listku pro restauraci mate uvedeno, ze jidla se vydavaji do :- Tak sup, pretisknout :-D. Kdyz mam 3x tydne skolu do ? Posledni dobou se mi uz nekolikrat stalo, ze jsem si objednal v restauraci minutku a dostal jsem k ni malo hranolek prilohy.

Nekdy to pusobi dojmem, ze se to proste nevejde na talir. K takovemu pokrmu by se dle me mela podavat priloha na zvlastni talir uz se mi to i stalo , protoze je k masu jeste zeleninovy salat a tak hranolky skutecne neni kam dat. Ale stava se mi to i u jinych jidel. Dost me to mrzi, jidlo je jinak chutne, porce masa je znacna, rychle pripravene, ale prijde mi ze porce priloh se snizila a zbytecne to srazi vysledny dojem. Mame uz jen 3 jidla - Dne Chtel jsem si objednat "Kure diplomat". K memu prekvapeni mi bylo sdeleno,ze zadne maso jiz nemaji a mam si proto vybrat z jidel: Spagety, lasagne a pripadne smazeny syr. Ostatni pry jiz nemaji. Chtel bych se proto zeptat, jak je mozne, ze se muze neco takoveho stat? Cevabcici s hranolky - K obedu bylo psane, ale pri navsteve jidelny v cca hod nebylo k dispozici.

Jidlo pribylo v nabidce asi 10 minut po mem prichodu do menzy a pred odchodem jiz zase v nabidce nebylo. Zkuste nejak zajistit kontinualni vydej jidla, nebo alespon informace o tom, ze je dalsi varka v priprave. Diky, Michal Novak. Hovezi gulas uhersky, knedliky houskove Ne ten sizunk, jako v tomto pripade. Vim, ze hovezi maso je drazsi, ale kdyz uz prezentujete hovezi gulas, tak nahrazovat cast masa veprovym mi prijde jako pekna svinarna :- Po ochutnani jsem zjistil, proc bylo kazde maso nabirano z jine misy.

Vzdy mi tam prisli porce vetsi, nez na Strahove. Polevka v Restauraci - Co kdyby byly v Restauraci krome polevek denni nabidky i nejake trvale jako je tomu v normalni restauraci? Jidelnicek - Dobry den, jiz nekolik dni nelze nacist jidelnicek Restaurace Strahov, na ktery vede odkaz "Restaurace minutky" na spodu jidelnicku pro Strahovskou menzu. Predem dekuji za napravu..

Dukatove buchticky s kremem Kdo to pak ma jist? Zalepeny Zaludek. Pri jednoduchych vypoctech, ze 0,2l stoji 2Kc zjistime, ze za 50l barel dostanete Kc, toje docela palba, nemyslite? Dale me zarazi, ze ac jidla jsou uctovana do posledniho halere, tak za kelimek platime celou 1Kc, za kterou ji rozhodne nenakupujete. The relation between musicality and the influence of music on typewriting scores. ML Mus. Almon, Jean Marie. Problems of an interior. Fine Arts Draw, and Paint. Alnutt, John Carl. A first semester senior high school course in American literature treated reflectively in the light of historical backgrounds. Alsmiller, Hufard G. Positron annihilation in metals. Alsup, Richard Glenn. The reaction of sodium azide with ethylene sulfides, ethylenimines and triethylene oxide.

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A comparison of the school progress and personal adjustment of underage and overage students of comparable intelligence during eleven years in school. Balm, Arthur Nathanael. T h e effect of alpha estradiol benzoate on the reagin titer of male rabbits treated with the Nichols strain of Treponema pallidum. Bahr, Ehrhard. A study of Nietzsche's educational philosophy from the point of view of democratic education. Baier, George W a y n e. A preliminary investigation of the inter-agreement b e tween speech teachers and laymen in evaluating public speaking performances.

Speech and Drama. Bailey, Donald Hoy. Three staff projects of an administrative aide. Baird, Irwin L. An anatomical study of certain salamanders of the genus Tseudoeurycea. Baird, John Sanford. Fire Order. Baker, Anna Belle Bees. Guideposts in art education for elementary teachers: a study in preparation for supervision of art. Baker, Catherine Smith. Care for the unmarried mother and her child. Baker, Charles D. Classification into college major-areas of concentration by means of multiple discriminant function weighting of college entrance test scores. Baker, Charles David. A critical analysis of three high school chemistry textbooks. Baker, Daniel Protheroe. Baker, Frederick Donald.

Studies on the enzyme lipase in die housefly, Musca domestica L. Baker, John Norton. Pulsation heating effects in projection welding. Baker, Maurice Frank. The ecology and management of prairie chickens in Kansas. Baker, Rollin Harold. The avifauna of Micronesia: its origin, evolution, and Ph. Baker, Roy. T h e development and administration of a municipal garage, with emphasis upon accounting control. Baker, William Earl. The narrative of corporate annual reports: its purpose, the techniques of presentation, and the contents. A sample study of rehabilitation of tuberculosis cases in Kansas for the four-year period, Baklridge, Joseph Biley. The structure of certain organic compounds. Bale, Lawrence James. A study of health knowledge in training and nontraining groups.

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Barkis, Betty Jane. Methods of reporting pupil progress in the vocal music class in Kansas elementary schools. Borland, Jerome Kenneth. A comparative study of body measurements of male students entering the University of Kansas. Barnes, B. A comparison of John Ruskin and Leo Tolstoy. Barnes, Guy Virgil. A study of business education in the high schools of the second class cities of Kansas. Barnes, Teddy John. Barnett, Howard Hayden.

The spectral theorem for normal transformations. Barney, James Earl II. Solubilities of some slightly soluble inorganic salts in solutions of the common anion. Barrientos-Monzon, Guido. Performance in a runway situation as a function of consummatory time and shifts in consummatory time. Bartel, Roy Allen. Testing basketball ability of senior high school boys. Baskett, Betty Lee. An analysis of the senior English courses in Kansas high schools.

Bates, Paul Allen, Elizabethan amorous pastorals. Bates, Wayne E. Batty, Thomas Victor. The anatomy of the digestive tube of the toadfish Opsanus tau. Baumann, Norman Paul. Some internal properties of eleetrets. Particle reactions in the proton bombardment of N a. Baxter, Hazel Scott. A study of the social and environmental factors in a selected number of cases of retrolental fibroplasia.

Beal, Jack Lewis. A phytochemical study of the fixed oil from the fruit of Madura pomifera. Bcale, Elizabeth Althea. A developmental analysis of children's delay behavior in a temptation type of conflict situation. Beall, Kenneth Ellsworth, Jr. The observant English traveler in the eighteenth century. Bean, Claude Thomas, Jr. The preparation of compounds related to the insecticide o, o-diethyl-o, p-nitrophenyl thiophosphate. Beasley, Kenneth Ephraim. The cooperative commonwealth federation in Saskatchewan: a preliminary report. State supervision of municipal debt in Kansas. Bechtle, Gerald Francis. The use of positive halogens in the identification of olefins.

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Studies on hypothermy induced in guinea pigs by the cellular material of vibrio coma. Beckloff, Gerald L. The effect of nicotine on experimental hypercholesterolemia in the rabbit. Relationship between anticonvulsants and brain succinic dehydrogenase. Beckloff, George N. The pharmacology of some tetracovalent organophosphorous compounds and their optical isomers. The function of sulfhydryl reagents in renal hypertension. Bcckwith, Josephine Beatrice. An historical study of selected practices in agencies operating under the urban Bureau of the Woman's Division of the Methodist Board of Missions. Beeler, Joe R. Theory of single closed loop systems. Some effects of vapors on electret behavior.

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Biddle, Emma Wilhelmina. A study to determine the adequacy of the elementary music curriculum in Troy, Kansas. Bien, E. A manual for water works management. Bierbaum, Miriam A. Variations in heart action under the influence of musical stimuli. Biery, Helen Bair. A selected annotated bibliography of books in English for supplementary reading for students of first year Latin. Bigelow, Helen Aline. A study of the reciprocal influence of Don Quijote and Sancho Panza as reflected in their dialogues and proverbs. Bigelow, Nelson, Jr. Bigge, Morris L. The harmonies and conflicts of principles of topological and vector psychology with the tenets of three educational philosophies.

Bilderback, Dean Loy. The kingship in Merovingian Gaul, Billings, John Burnham. The closed school movement and school reorganization in Greenwood County. Billings, Marlin Richard. Extra-school professional activities of Kansas music educators. Billington, Joan Schlagel. Birger Sandzen: pioneer painter of Kansas. Binder, Johannes. Legal aspects of United States high sea fishery policies in the Pacific Ocean. Bingham, Hal G. The effect of radiation from intraperitoneally injected radium chloride upon the hemopoietic activity of the bone marrow in albino rats.

Bingham, Ralph Marshall. Bird, Dorothy Jean. Birdwhistell, Ralph K. Some studies of salt effects on solubility in acetic acid. Birnbaum, Morris Melvin. A seventy-five thousand kilowatt hydroelectric project design for the Yampa River. Bishop, Frances Marian. A descriptive study of student reaction in two sections of cases in human relations. Bishop, Samuel Wills. Geology and petrography of the Mt. Mestas area, Colorado.

Bithos, Zoe J. Black, Charles Thomas. Oil refinery waste water treatment. Little Sister Sunflower: a story for children with illustrations. Blair, Frances I. The separation of acetylsalicylic acid, acetophenetidin, and caffeine. Blakely, Ruth Olive. A study of transiency in Kansas City, Kansas. Blea, William Alexander. Investigation of hearing acuity and discrimination of subjects of advanced age. Bleecker, Chester Vincent.

Symphony No. Bluett, Elizabeth Muriel. Determination of a color scheme for elementary schools. Blumenfeld, Stewart Norman. Isolation and serologic studies of adenovirus types 4 and 7 and studies of adenovirus RI in vitro. Bock, Robert Leroy. A political study of Subhas Chandra Bose as antagonist of Gandhian philosophy and non-violence. Boden, Nancy Jeannette. Bodine, Robert Young. The fundamental frequency of a thin, flat, circular plate simply supported along a circle of arbitrary radius. Boker, Thomas Andrew. Sand dunes on northern Padre Island, Texas.

Bolton, Merle Ray, Sr. Consultative services in some Kansas schools. Bolyard, Ada Ann French. By the latter half of the twentieth century, the Historical Society expanded to include a diverse array of initiatives. Under the leadership of Nicholas Wainwright —86 , who served in several capacities, including editor, librarian, and director, the society formed agreements with commercial publishers in the s resulting in facsimile and microfilm publications of Indian Treaties , the Pennsylvania Gazette , and African American—related reprints By , the society held the papers of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society , a process begun in the s.

The society also hosted related projects. In the s, it provided space for the William Penn Papers project , which prepared first a microfilm and then a letterpress edition. In addition, the society developed a closer relationship with its neighbor, the Library Company of Philadelphia , producing joint exhibitions and initiating a fellowship program to support scholarship. In the s and s, the society moved to hire professionally trained library staff and added positions focused on educational programming.

Blockson b. Society leadership played a large role in shaping and reshaping the society. Historian Peter Parker b. Under Stitt, supporting research became a higher priority. David Moltke-Hanson b. In , the Historical Society successfully merged with the Balch Institute for Ethnic Studies founded , resulting in deeper and more diverse collections. The society had a long symbiotic relationship with the Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania founded ; Genealogical Society members held membership in the Historical Society, which in turn provided housing and research support. Amid monetary woes in the s, officers attempted to merge the societies, but failed. Genealogy became an increasingly important focus for the society in the twenty-first century.

Over the course of nearly two centuries, the society transformed into a professionally staffed institution and amassed extensive, diverse collections while struggling with how best to serve the public good and support historical research. Her research interests explore how efforts to preserve materials for history have shaped what survived. As one of the original counties established by William Penn , Chester County was only modestly influenced by Philadelphia in its early development because after it shared no border with the city. Not until the second half of the twentieth century did dramatic changes come to its pastoral landscapes and small towns. Lenni Lenape also known as Delaware , along with some Dutch and Swedes , already lived in the area before Penn laid out the county boundaries stretching more than one hundred miles from the Delaware River to the Susquehanna River.

That initial county structure proved too large to serve its inhabitants well. In , provincial authorities carved out Lancaster County, then in shifted a small part to Berks County as well. Not long after the American Revolution , the residents in the western portion of the remaining county objected to traveling so far to conduct business in the county seat at Chester City on the Delaware River. They wanted a county seat located farther west. They got their wish when West Chester became the county seat, and three years later, in , Delaware County was carved out. From that time, Chester County no longer shared a border with Philadelphia. Penn had encouraged the early formation of townships covering the entire territory as a way to promote self-government.

Many boroughs and townships had incorporated by the early eighteenth century, for example Caln in , Kennett in , Uwchlan in , and numerous others. But the Quakers who predominated in much of Chester County shunned town living, preferring life on their farms. Based on religious scruples, Quakers showed little interest in formal governance of their territory. Except for the county seat, early towns carried few public responsibilities beyond providing small local marketplaces and serving as units for assessing taxes. Rural families produced a large share of the goods for home consumption, and craftsmen lived among the farmers, trading their products for food.

The first major east-west road following the Great Valley westward was the Lancaster Road or the Great Road, which became the most traveled route of its time. Benjamin Rush in remarked that it was "not uncommon to meet fifty to a hundred Conestoga wagons in one day along this road, mostly belonging to German farmers. Largely following that same route, the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike Road Company constructed in the first long-distance paved route in the United States stretching sixty-two miles between Philadelphia and the city of Lancaster.

The improved road bed allowed farmers and craftsmen to haul heavy freight and drive stage coaches from Lancaster to Philadelphia. It brought travelers to dozens of inns, taverns, saddleries, and shops of every variety, and helped build Downingtown and a few other commercial centers along its route. To serve the southern part of the county, the state chartered the Philadelphia, Brandywine and New London Turnpike Company in to build a stagecoach road from Philadelphia to Baltimore. That route, known as the Baltimore Pike designated Route 1 in , entered Chester County from Delaware County at Chadds Ford and ran through the Brandywine Valley—a mix of farms and woodland, as well as commercial towns and villages like Kennett Square.

Farmers in the Brandywine Valley hauled their grain to mills powered by the Brandywine River, which also powered paper mills that supplied Philadelphia printers. Railroads exerted less impact on early settlement patterns in Chester County than in other suburban counties around Philadelphia because the rail network was less densely built on the western edge of the region. The great exception was the Main Line, a railroad designed as one component of a larger network of canals and rails that the state government sponsored in order to help Pennsylvania compete commercially against New York State. Construction started in , carried on largely by Irish immigrants.

In the Pennsylvania Railroad purchased the line since known as the Main Line. They broke ground in in Concord Township in Delaware County, where the celebrants tossed one shovelful of dirt toward Philadelphia and another toward Baltimore to signify the goal of connecting the two cities. But their main function was to link Philadelphia to the distant cities of Lancaster to the west and Baltimore to the south. One of the few places within the county that did purposely build rail lines to spur its own development was the county seat of West Chester, where business leaders formed a railroad company to connect their town to the Main Line running some miles to the north.

Farmers grew corn, wheat, barley, oats, rye, buckwheat, and flax , and most settlements had a grist mill, which could also be used as a sawmill. However, as improved transportation networks made long-distance shipping easier, farmers shifted away from diversified crops to produce more livestock. The growth of Philadelphia and increasing purchasing power of the population persuaded farmers to supply more meat. By mid-nineteenth century, agriculture in Chester County focused most heavily on grazing and dairying.

Early iron manufactories established a basis for nationally-known ironworks. It grew into an extensive ironworks consisting of furnace, foundry, rolling-mill, and nail factory, employing three hundred to four hundred men. As railroads multiplied, the company focused on structural steel for bridge building, a crucial requirement for railroad expansion. All the raw materials needed—iron ore, limestone, and hardwood forests for charcoal—were available in the Coatesville area. When Lukens died in , Rebecca took over operation of the steel mill.

She managed the business until and turned it into the top producer of boilerplate in the country. Agriculture continued to operate profitably throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, aided by the rail lines that crossed the county. By the s, the Pennsylvania Railroad trains that ran all the way to Lancaster gave farmers in western Chester County a way to ship fresh milk and produce daily to Philadelphia.

Plant cultivation contributed significantly to the county economy. They pioneered the use of mail order catalogues, and by the late s shipping of their nursery products made West Grove the second-largest post office in Chester County. The company became nationally known for its roses, most notably the Peace Rose. In , the company provided one of this specially bred flower to every international delegate meeting in San Francisco to establish the United Nations.

In the s William Swayne , a florist in Kennett Square, began growing mushrooms in the unused space underneath his greenhouse benches. Because he required precise regulation of the temperature, humidity, and air quality, Swayne erected the first building to be used exclusively for mushroom growing, and Kennett Square eventually became the national center of mushroom cultivation.

Starting in the s chemist G. Raymond Rettew began providing testing services to area mushroom growers. He devised a process for growing penicillin that made mass production of the drug possible. He sold the idea to Reichel Laboratories of Phoenixville, which was acquired by Wyeth in To house the poor and unemployed, county leaders in built a Poor House about eight miles from West Chester on the banks of the Brandywine Creek. On three hundred acres, they built a large brick building and a barn to house a working farm. This county almshouse system replaced the aid provided by individual townships. The intent was to provide a more consistent level of care and a more efficient use of funds. Reflecting their shared belief in the value of work, they required every able body to work, even the children.

Residents of the Poor House sold homespun cloth, brooms, smoked meats, and even quarried limestone. Early European settlers held African slaves, though in relatively small numbers. In Chester County the number of slave owners reached 4 percent of taxpayers in The strong Quaker influence in the affairs of the county discouraged slavery as did economic factors. Those free African Americans worked for hire or owned their own small businesses. Local European Americans, primarily Quaker, and African American abolitionists concealed runaway enslaved people who traveled from the South through the mid-Atlantic and north to safety in Canada.

Anti-slavery sentiment was particularly strong in Kennett Square, a center of abolitionism. Disagreement over the authority of Quaker meetings and how best to address the issue of slavery led to the establishment of the Pennsylvania Yearly Meeting of Progressive Friends in Longwood Yearly Meeting. The Longwood Meetinghouse opened in Its annual meetings hosted radicals and reformers such as Sojourner Truth and William Lloyd Garrison. County residents also hosted the first Pennsylvania Woman's Rights Convention in June in West Chester, advocating for equal legal, social, economic, and political rights, including suffrage.

The African American population grew after the Civil War, when iron companies in Phoenixville and Coatesville recruited black workers in the South as a way of discouraging European immigrants from striking for higher wages. Animosity between working-class whites and blacks came to a head in Coatesville in with the horrifying death of Zachariah Walker, a black man who was literally burned alive by a white mob after his conviction for killing a white guard at a local steel plant. In part to address social inequality, the Society of Friends supported education for all children. It went through a series of transformations across the years that resulted in its becoming West Chester University.

Despite important efforts to promote broad social advancement, the county entered the twentieth century with wide disparities among its residents. Wealthy families built rural retreats on large estates, many of them designed in the Victorian style popular among early twentieth century architects. West Whiteland Township, served by the Pennsylvania Railroad running along the Main Line, boasted an impressive collection of such homes. Important Philadelphia architects built many of them, for example the Francis W. Kennedy House designed by Frank Miles Day in for a vice president of the Wilkes-Barre and Western Railway; the Joseph Price House, an older structure that was extensively altered in for a wealthy Philadelphia surgeon; and Meadowcourt sometimes called Autun which was designed by Edmund Gilchrist in the French style in for insurance executive Benjamin Rush Jr.

Owners of these large properties pursued diversions like foxhunting, for which a group of well-to-do families established the Whitelands Hunt. In the Brandywine Valley in Pierre S. Dupont of the wealthy Delaware Dupont family bought the Peirce Farm in Kennett Township and created an estate of incomparable beauty. He repaired and expanded the original Peirce farmhouse, connecting new and old wings with a conservatory whose courtyard was planted with exotic foliage and a marble fountain. In , he added an elegant music room with walnut paneling, damask-covered walls, teak floors, and a molded plaster ceiling, opening onto the central axis of the main greenhouse.

At the other end of the social spectrum, in nearby communities of southern Chester County, immigrants lived in deplorable conditions. Around the turn of the twentieth century, southern Europeans came to the county. By , newspapers were criticizing these immigrant workers for drying their laundry on the outside of their shanties. Despite the social stigma the Italians stayed, and a century later 16 percent of West Chester residents still claimed Italian ancestry. In industrial towns like Coatesville and Phoenixville, Eastern Europeans, notably Hungarians and Poles, served as a significant source for factory labor. Recruiters brought them to Pennsylvania to farm labor-intensive crops like vegetables, fruits, and mushrooms.

Kennett Square, the center of mushroom production, attracted a substantial Spanish-speaking population, as did the smaller community of Toughkenamon a mile west of Kennett Square. Limited by their very low wages and undocumented status, many immigrants settled for dilapidated, overcrowded houses, apartments, or mobile homes. In the Alliance for Better Housing composed of clergy, mushroom growers, and local officials began working to improve housing conditions for farm workers and other low-income residents in southern Chester County.

Newcomers from South and East Asia lived a completely different immigrant experience from the mushroom workers in southern Chester County. Hired into knowledge economy jobs, they clustered in affluent townships along Route or Route 30—for example, East Whiteland, West Whiteland, East Caln, and Upper Uwchlan—in the northeast section of the county, where they worked in technology and finance companies. The American Community Survey showed that 49 percent of county residents had college degrees, the highest percentage among suburban counties surrounding Philadelphia. In , it was the highest-income county in Pennsylvania and twenty-fourth highest in the U. Not all towns shared that success.

Because of its reliance on the steel industry, the city of Coatesville suffered the most visible and dramatic setbacks in the county. But faced with competition from foreign steel producers, in the company reduced its workforce by 22 percent between January and September and cut the pay of salaried employees by 10 percent. After years of continuous operation, Lukens Steel Company sold its Coatesville operation to Bethlehem Steel Company , which in turn sold the plant to new international owners.

Each new owner reduced the workforce, so that by the end of the twentieth century the steel plant that had employed over six thousand workers at midcentury provided jobs for only one thousand. These contrasting fortunes yielded substantial differences in tax resources available to town governments, and that in turn produced unequal public services. To worsen inequalities, lower-spending districts were educating larger shares of low-income children. In only 14 percent of the school population in the high-spending Great Valley School District had incomes low enough to qualify for free and reduced-price lunches. That same year, the low-spending Oxford Area School District served a student body in which 40 percent qualified for subsidized lunches.

The Pennsylvania Turnpike Interstate 76 dramatically altered development in the northeast section of the county. Builders completed the Chester County section of the Turnpike in Another example of an expressway influencing development was Route , a highway dating back to In , the Pennsylvania Department of Highways designed a continuous four-lane expressway along the US corridor, opening the section of that new expressway south from King of Prussia toward West Chester in Over the next several decades that stretch of Route attracted hundreds of computer-related companies, biomedical concerns, and other service and information- based firms.

Suburbanizing relatively late, Chester County in the s offered developers a chance to acquire huge open parcels on which to build a series of high-profile and often controversial industrial parks. Some occupied more than a square mile of ground, making them larger than some boroughs in Chester County. Carr and his partner David Knauer recognized the value of farmland sitting near the Downingtown exit off the Pennsylvania Turnpike, which was the only connection to the national superhighway system in Chester County. In the partners bought acres for sale in Lionville and turned them into Pickering Creek Industrial Park, a collection of more than a dozen multipurpose buildings that housed companies specializing in product testing, manufacturing, and eventually biotechnology and life sciences.

His plan, unusual for combining residential neighborhoods with a corporate complex, faced stiff public opposition when unveiled in Opponents feared that the traffic it generated would negatively impact Valley Forge State later National Park. The ensuing legal battle went all the way to the state Supreme Court. Hundreds of residents attended meetings and signed petitions against construction, but eventually Fox prevailed and began to build housing in , gradually adding a shopping center, restaurants, corporate offices, and a hotel, along with open spaces. Philadelphia-based developer Willard Rouse convinced young companies to locate in his new development by building facilities to their specifications and helping them finance the move to Chester County.

Biotechnology companies valued a location that put them close to Philadelphia universities and medical centers and at the same time close to pharmaceutical companies like SmithKline, Merck, and Rhone-Poulenc Rorer. Rouse , built the Exton Square Mall. The Maryland developer acquired a tract of land at the intersection of Route 30 and Route that held little more than a few gas stations, a drive-in movie, a diner and a motel, and built his mall there in Exton Square remained a major retail center well into the twenty-first century. Its size and scope attracted additional services, including a public library, the Exton Transportation Center with connections to the King of Prussia Mall, and medical facilities.

Watching such large-scale, master-planned developments multiply during the s and s, Chester County residents feared the loss of open land and the road congestion that such developments brought with them. Those apprehensions brought an end to one of the most ambitious proposals ever considered in the county. That unspoiled expanse of cornfields was so massive that it spanned parts of three townships, forcing Rouse to negotiate for years with multiple local governments to secure permission to build.

In the end the sheer scale of development proved too much for local residents. From to , Chester County lost over fifty thousand acres of land to development, more than had been developed in the previous three hundred years. To stave off such a future, the county government adopted a dramatic and far-reaching plan titled Landscapes: Managing Change in Chester County to shape its growth until The plan prescribed preserving open space while directing future development into already-existing towns, to ensure Chester County would remain attractive as a place for knowledge industries to locate. Although the county government could do little more than offer technical assistance for implementing the plan to local governments that retained control of land use under Pennsylvania law, nonetheless by about one quarter of the land area in the county had been permanently preserved.

Some private developers fell in line with county plans by making investments that reduced the number of auto trips workers needed to make each day. For example, the owners of Great Valley Corporate Center redesigned their auto-dependent complex to incorporate everyday services like day care, fitness centers, stores, and restaurants within a walkable mixed-use development. Other developers saw opportunities in older boroughs like Phoenixville and West Chester to reinvest in Victorian structures and community character that would attract residents. Still other builders sought to create new housing on smaller-than-standard-size lots so they could permanently preserve open space for the pleasure of community residents.

They found local zoning laws a major stumbling block. The developer persisted and eventually succeeded, but not without enormous resistance from residents who supported more conventional subdivision designs. It gave county leaders a greater chance to preserve farms, wooded areas, and historic landscapes than in other counties in the Philadelphia region. Yet the negative consequence of delayed development was that Chester County possessed even less public transit than neighboring counties. Chester County entered the twenty-first century with little hope of convincing motorists to abandon their cars.

Carolyn T. This essay incorporates information and suggestions provided by Laurie A. Rofini, Archives Director, and Cliff C. Although a few Koreans came to Greater Philadelphia in the early twentieth century to study in universities, Koreans became one of the top ten new immigrant groups in the region by The new U. While that flow failed to match the influx of other immigrant groups by the early twenty-first century, increased importing of goods from Korea and technology start-up collaborations between area businesses and universities with South Korea further deepened ties.

Many Korean Americans lived transnational lives, traveling back and forth between Philadelphia and South Korea for school, work, and reconnections to Korean culture and language. Korea as a nation is known through archaeology and early dynastic history dating back to the Joseon dynasty fifteenth century. In the nineteenth century, incursions by European imperial nations were repelled, but Japanese imperialism ultimately led to colonial control beginning in until the end of World War II , as agricultural labor and forced industrial labor migration to Japan were needed to replace Japanese conscripted to fight. As the new nation invested heavily in education to accelerate the shift from agriculture to modern industry, it supported educational innovation at home and encouraged its citizens to pursue higher education in the United States.

After the immigration reform , which abolished a nationality quota system that had been in place since the s, a new wave of young families who had been educated in Korean universities in fields such as accounting and engineering, but who had not found professional or managerial jobs in their own country during a period of slow growth, migrated to Philadelphia.

Many came with the intent of investing in retailing, with some working capital and with knowledge of Korean business brokers who could help locate available stores, financing, and experts in particular commodities. Models for business plans and store designs were often borrowed from Korean communities in larger cities such as Los Angeles and New York. In the s, organized protests and boycotts by community groups in North Philadelphia succeeded in prompting some Koreans to hire black and Latino workers as intermediaries between owners and their customers. By the s, an informal group of Korean and African American clergy were holding occasional services to bring congregations together across racial lines. At the same time, business groups and clergy sponsored intergroup summer camps and basketball programs.

In another case, clashes between whites and Koreans in the formerly white, diversifying Olney neighborhood in upper North Philadelphia in revealed how Koreans saw themselves as victims of white racism with more in common with other racial minorities. In an attempt to set up a Koreatown following the Los Angeles model, Korean merchants erected Korean language street signs on the Olney Fifth Street strip.

They envisioned developing a wholesale area to serve Korean retailers from the mid-Atlantic including Pittsburgh, Maryland, and Delaware , as well as serving as a center of consumption for university-based Koreans. They viewed the signs as necessary for out-of-town merchants and Korean tourists. Established white residents perceived this as a way of excluding them from their strip and ripped down the signs. Notably, the first English public announcement of the Koreatown project appeared in the Daily Pennsylvanian , the University of Pennsylvania student newspaper, revealing the close but informal relationship between the Korean neighborhood-based merchants and the university-based community. Rapid economic growth in Korea in the s created an increase in socioeconomic diversity among Korean Americans and in the economic ties between Korean Americans and Korea.

For the first two decades of immigration to the mids , Korean immigrants were limited in the amount of capital they could take out of Korea. The state wanted immigrants to boost the home economy through remittances, sending money back to Korea, rather than removing working capital from the homeland. Now valuing trade and overseas investment, the country loosened the restrictions on capital that immigrants could take abroad.

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