Role Of Justice In Bedouin

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Role Of Justice In Bedouin

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Although educational curricula and research agendas do currently not focus on TK, there is a tradition of TK research Briggs et al. As Egypt is among the countries with the highest increase in scientific research output in the world in Makri , TK could be taken up as a research focus which in turn may contribute to its the preservation and use Table 2 , S4. Despite these strengths, there are also current weaknesses.

A clear TK policy framework is lacking as TK is only rarely mentioned in the national policy documents and is hardly applied Table 2 , W1. Consequently, it has no role in most regional institutions see Table 1, supplementary materials, Appendices of chapter five. This has resulted in institutional ignorance of TK Table 2 , W2 , and as a consequence in a lack of interest and use by Wadi Allaqi sectors, we have investigated by interviews Table 2 , W3. We found a lack of cooperation between local actors from the different sectors in Wadi Allaqi Table 2 , W4 , although there is an official obligation to work together in order to develop the resources of the area for the benefit of the people Springuel and Belal Despite the potential strength built by relevant academic institutions, the current absence of TK in academic research and educational programs as well as in school programs is a weakness.

Here, a lack of funding is especially unfortunate in view of the high costs of TK research in remote areas such as Wadi Allaqi Table 2 , W5. We consider as threats those developments which may restrict the interest and further integration of TK in Egyptian policy. Paradoxically, the remoteness of Wadi Allaqi and its social isolation may have contributed to the conservation of its TK so far, but is also a threat as it may contribute to a further marginalization of the local society and to the policy ignorance of TK Table 2 , T1. It certainly accounts for the relative difficulty to travel to the area and hinders cooperation with, e. At the same time, strong social-economic developments in recent decennia have occurred in Wadi Allaqi Kandal et al.

Related to these developments is that some Bedouins tend to leave the area for a better living elsewhere which also results in the loss of TK Table 2 , T3. One aspect of these developments is decrease of interests in TK by the younger generation in Wadi Allaqi, preferring a more modern lifestyle at the cost of traditional knowledge and skills Table 2 , T4. As a consequence, much knowledge of, e. Finally, despite the weaknesses and threats, we have also indicated a number of opportunities for TK. One is that the Egyptian politics is currently finalizing a draft law on TK in relation to genetic resources Table 2 , O1. Although the current political condition has delayed this process, the draft version may still function as an opportunity to prepare measures that can be taken after the parliamentary approval Table 2 , O1.

Another opportunity is to make use of the individual interests in TK that we have noticed during our interviews with the local Egyptian policy-makers Table 2 , O2. This intergovernmental scientific program facilitates the sharing of knowledge, promotes the interaction between science and society, and helps to bring concrete improvements to the lives of local populations. As such it may stimulate TK by offering funding opportunities Table 2 , O3. Based on our SWOT analysis above, we would like to suggest a number of feasible policy directions and measures that may contribute to a better implementation of TK in Egyptian policy.

Through connecting strengths and opportunities, weaknesses may be compensated or nullified, and threats are neutralized. First, it is mandated that the Egyptian Parliament approves a draft TK law in relation to genetic resources, which will result in a legislative effect for TK in general and facilitate its protection, conservation, and functioning in the governmental institutions. Strengthening the research and educational systems and institutions on TK in Egypt should be given priority. Future research efforts should collect and quantify information on TK in collaboration with stakeholders including local communities by engaging them in discussions about TK.

Such multi-actor, grassroots collaborations will contribute to health care, food security, sustainable agriculture and natural resource management, and related TK Reo et al. Without stable Bedouin communities, we run the risk of losing the current body of TK. TK policies should therefore be connected with an improvement in the socioeconomic situation of the Bedouin community.

Younger generations of Bedouins should be involved in developing new opportunities for livelihoods. Additionally, it will be important to raise awareness in the Egyptian society as a whole by the dissemination of information such as books, CDs, TV and radio programs, and Internet sites. At the same time, one has to make sure that Egyptian institutions should be encouraged to relate these recommendations to international discussions and initiatives on TK. Traditional and indigenous knowledge are not interchangeable terms according to some authors e. Abou Zid, S. Survey on medicinal plants and spicesused in Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 7, Article Google Scholar.

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Journal of Arid Environments press. Mahmoud, T. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies. Makri, A. Pakistan and Egypt had highest rises in research output in Global production of scientific papers hit an all-time high this year, estimates show, with emerging economies rising fastest. Nature International Journal of Science. Mcgregor, D. Lessons for collaboration involving traditional knowledge and environmental Governance in Ontario, Canada. Medaglia, J. Although Israel and Palestine both face rising temperatures and less rainfall as a result of climate change, Palestinians are likely to suffer the effects more severely.

The rest supplies Israel and illegal Israeli settlements in the West Bank. Palestinians protest climate change in village of Umm al-Khair, in front of illegal Israeli settlement Carmel which steals their water supply. In Umm al-Khair, the Palestinian Water Authority is not allowed to build water networks to provide the village with running water. And the people cannot build cisterns either. I met people from all over the world through Sidreh and continue to learn new things.

Conservatism has often clashed in Bedouin culture. Men and women are not seen as equal and as a result, the high unemployment rate among Bedouin women increases their dependence on men. Their inability to read or write makes it more difficult for them to find work. The role of a Bedouin woman was once bigger — when we used to live in tents the woman had a full partnership in the economy of the house with her husband. Today because of modernization, the Bedouin women lost that role. Lakiya Weaving Center was burnt down and a substantial amount of money was stolen when it opened. After being rebuilt, men in the community began to adjust to the idea of working women and slowly accepted the idea. The obligation is the same.

Dropout rates for Bedouin girls are the highest in the country. This is partly because existing schools are inaccessible and difficult to reach for girls living in unrecognized villages and the result is that more than 50 percent of girls aged 15 and over are also illiterate. When farming and herding were the main way of life for Bedouins, women played leading roles in the household and shared the role of breadwinners. Reviving the weaving can once more offer women their independence.

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