Research Paper On Sixto Rodriguez

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Research Paper On Sixto Rodriguez



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Do You Really Know Yourself? Are You Suffering from Dental Phobia? Despite a monstrous game against the Minnesota Twins on May 2, matching his career high with two home runs for the seventh of eight times and six RBIs achieved twice previously , Simmons began the campaign in a prolonged slump. By the end of May he was batting just. Struggling to play. The entire clubhouse atmosphere changed when longtime Brewers minor-league coach Harvey Kuenn was named skipper. Simmons heated up, too, collecting 16 hits in his last 35 at-bats and knocking in 11 runs in 9 games to push his batting average to. Leading the division by four games with five more to play, the Brewers lost four straight, the latter three to the Orioles, with whom they fell into a tie in an epic season-ending four-game series in Baltimore.

In the winner-take-all game on Sunday, October 3, the Brewers bats exploded for 10 runs and four home runs, including two by Robin Yount , cementing his eventual MVP award, and one by Simmons, who finished with 23 home runs and 97 RBIs. Whitey Ball, a reincarnation of the Deadball Era game, stressing speed, stolen bases, small ball, and defense. The Brewers exploded for 10 runs in a Game One shutout on October 12 at Busch Stadium, which erupted in cheers each time their former favorite son, Simmons, came to bat.

In the fifth, Simmons belted a solo shot off Bob Forsch. In Simmons split his time behind the plate and as the DH and responded by batting. On June 12 Simmons doubled in the 10th inning against the Yankees in County Stadium to reach to reach the 2,hit plateau. The wear and tear of catching of 1,plus games caught up to Simmons quickly. His batting average dipped to. He rebounded slightly in Traded to the Atlanta Braves in March , Simmons spent his final three seasons playing sparingly behind the plate and at first and third base. A graybeard on a struggling young team, Simmons was a de-facto playing coach, helping players adjust to the major leagues. After 2, games, the year-old Simmons retired after the season, but he did not stay away from baseball long.

As he had for almost his entire playing career, he returned in the offseason to St. Louis, where he resided with his wife, Maryanne, and their two children. A three-pack-a day cigarette smoker, Simmons suffered a heart attack on June 8, , and resigned less than two weeks later after just 16 months on the job to concentrate on his health. Simmons returned to baseball again in , taking a less strenuous position with the Cleveland Indians as a special-assignment scout.

During his stint in that capacity, the Indians rose from perennial also-rans to one of the best teams in the AL, winning the pennant in and In late Simmons was hired by the San Diego Padres to serve as vice president of scouting and player development, a position he held until Simmons was back in a baseball uniform in , as bench coach for the Milwaukee Brewers, and served in the same capacity for the Padres in Simmons was unquestionably one of the most productive hitting catchers in terms of cumulative as well as peak performance in major-league history. Upon retirement, he ranked eighth all-time in games caught 1,; and ranked 16th as of the end of ; his 2, hits ranked second all-time as of behind Hall of Famer Ivan Rodriguez ; and his 1, RBIs rank second to Yogi Berra , as of He hit.

Despite those statistics, Simmons received just 3. In Simmons received a measure of atonement when the Cardinals inducted him into their Hall of Fame. Louis Post-Dispatch sportswriter Rick Hummel upon learning that the news. In addition to the sources cited in the Notes, the author also accessed Retrosheet. Simmons received 13 of the 16 votes cast; 12 were required for election by the Modern Era Committee. Louis Post-Dispatch , September 14, 1. Louis Globe-Democrat , January 28, 6B. Louis Post-Dispatch , March 18, 3E. Louis Post-Dispatch , June 8, 3C. Louis Post-Dispatch , March 26, 1B.

Louis Post-Dispatch , August 3, 1H. Louis Post-Dispatch , June 2C. Louis Post-Dispatch , July 25, 1C. Louis Post-Dispatch , March 20, 2B. Louis Post-Dispatch , December 9, Support SABR today! In five months, New Granada defeated Ecuador due to the fact that the majority of the Ecuadorian Armed Forces were composed of rebellious angry unpaid veterans from Venezuela and Colombia that did not want to fight against their fellow countrymen. Seeing that his officers were rebelling, mutinying, and changing sides, President Flores had no option but to reluctantly make peace with New Granada.

When Ecuador seceded from the Gran Colombia, Peru decided not to follow the treaty of Guayaquil of or the protocoled agreements made. Peru contested Ecuador's claims with the newly discovered Real Cedula of , by which Peru claims the King of Spain had transferred these lands from the Viceroyalty of New Granada to the Viceroyalty of Peru. During colonial times this was to halt the ever-expanding Portuguese settlements into Spanish domains, which were left vacant and in disorder after the expulsion of Jesuit missionaries from their bases along the Amazon Basin.

Ecuador countered by labeling the Cedula of an ecclesiastical instrument, which had nothing to do with political borders. Peru began its de facto occupation of disputed Amazonian territories, after it signed a secret peace treaty in favor of Brazil. This treaty disregarded Spanish rights that were confirmed during colonial times by a Spanish-Portuguese treaty over the Amazon regarding territories held by illegal Portuguese settlers. Peru began occupying the defenseless missionary villages in the Mainas or Maynas region, which it began calling Loreto, with its capital in Iquitos.

During its negotiations with Brazil, Peru stated that based on the royal cedula of , it claimed Amazonian Basin territories up to Caqueta River in the north and toward the Andes Mountain range, depriving Ecuador and Colombia of all their claims to the Amazon Basin. Colombia protested stating that its claims extended south toward the Napo and Amazon Rivers. Peru ignored these protests and created the Department of Loreto in with its capital in Iquitos which it had recently invaded and systematically began to occupy using the river systems in all the territories claimed by both Colombia and Ecuador.

Peru briefly occupied Guayaquil again in , since Peru thought that Ecuador was selling some of the disputed land for development to British bond holders, but returned Guayaquil after a few months. The border dispute was then submitted to Spain for arbitration from to , but to no avail. In the early part of the 20th century, Ecuador made an effort to peacefully define its eastern Amazonian borders with its neighbours through negotiation.

Ecuador protested this secret treaty, since Colombia gave away Ecuadorian claimed land to Peru that Ecuador had given to Colombia in On July 21, , the Ponce-Castro Oyanguren Protocol was signed between Ecuador and Peru where both agreed to hold direct negotiations and to resolve the dispute in an equitable manner and to submit the differing points of the dispute to the United States for arbitration. Negotiations between the Ecuadorian and Peruvian representatives began in Washington on September 30, These negotiations were long and tiresome. Both sides logically presented their cases, but no one seemed to give up their claims.

Then on February 6, , Ecuador presented a transactional line which Peru rejected the next day. The negotiations turned into intense arguments during the next 7 months and finally on September 29, , the Peruvian representatives decided to break off the negotiations without submitting the dispute to arbitration because the direct negotiations were going nowhere. Four years later in , amid fast-growing tensions within disputed territories around the Zarumilla River, war broke out with Peru. In July , troops were mobilized in both countries.

Peru had an army of 11, troops who faced a poorly supplied and inadequately armed Ecuadorian force of 2,, of which only 1, were deployed in the southern provinces. Hostilities erupted on July 5, , when Peruvian forces crossed the Zarumilla river at several locations, testing the strength and resolve of the Ecuadorian border troops. Finally, on July 23, , the Peruvians launched a major invasion, crossing the Zarumilla river in force and advancing into the Ecuadorian province of El Oro. During the course of the Ecuadorian—Peruvian War , Peru gained control over part of the disputed territory and some parts of the province of El Oro, and some parts of the province of Loja , demanding that the Ecuadorian government give up its territorial claims.

The Peruvian Navy blocked the port of Guayaquil , almost cutting all supplies to the Ecuadorian troops. After a few weeks of war and under pressure by the United States and several Latin American nations, all fighting came to a stop. Ecuador and Peru came to an accord formalized in the Rio Protocol , signed on January 29, , in favor of hemispheric unity against the Axis Powers in World War II favouring Peru with the territory they occupied at the time the war came to an end. However, a post-Second World War recession and popular unrest led to a return to populist politics and domestic military interventions in the s, while foreign companies developed oil resources in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

In , construction of the Andean pipeline was completed. The pipeline brought oil from the east side of the Andes to the coast, making Ecuador South America's second largest oil exporter. The pipeline in southern Ecuador did nothing to resolve tensions between Ecuador and Peru, however. This caused a long-simmering dispute between Ecuador and Peru, which ultimately led to fighting between the two countries; first a border skirmish in January—February known as the Paquisha Incident , and ultimately full-scale warfare in January where the Ecuadorian military shot down Peruvian aircraft and helicopters and Peruvian infantry marched into southern Ecuador.

Each country blamed the other for the onset of hostilities, known as the Cenepa War. Ecuador and Peru signed the Brasilia Presidential Act peace agreement on October 26, , which ended hostilities, and effectively put an end to the Western Hemisphere's longest running territorial dispute. While Ecuador had to give up its decades-old territorial claims to the eastern slopes of the Cordillera, as well as to the entire western area of Cenepa headwaters, Peru was compelled to give to Ecuador, in perpetual lease but without sovereignty, 1 km 2 0. In , a "revolutionary and nationalist" military junta overthrew the government of Velasco Ibarra. He remained in power until , when he was removed by another military government.

That military junta was led by Admiral Alfredo Poveda , who was declared chairman of the Supreme Council. The civil society more and more insistently called for democratic elections. Colonel Richelieu Levoyer , Government Minister, proposed and implemented a Plan to return to the constitutional system through universal elections. This plan enabled the new democratically elected president to assume the duties of the executive office. Elections were held on April 29, , under a new constitution. He took office on August 10, as the first constitutionally elected president after nearly a decade of civilian and military dictatorships. Many people believe that he was assassinated by the CIA, [29] given the multiple death threats leveled against him because of his reformist agenda, deaths in automobile crashes of two key witnesses before they could testify during the investigation, and the sometimes contradictory accounts of the incident.

His government was committed to improving human rights protection and carried out some reforms, notably an opening of Ecuador to foreign trade. However, continuing economic problems undermined the popularity of the ID, and opposition parties gained control of Congress in The emergence of the Amerindian population as an active constituency has added to the democratic volatility of the country in recent years. The population has been motivated by government failures to deliver on promises of land reform, lower unemployment and provision of social services, and historical exploitation by the land-holding elite. Their movement, along with the continuing destabilizing efforts by both the elite and leftist movements, has led to a deterioration of the executive office.

Vice President Alfredo Palacio took his place and remained in office until the presidential election of , in which Rafael Correa gained the presidency. In December , president Correa declared Ecuador's national debt illegitimate, based on the argument that it was odious debt contracted by corrupt and despotic prior regimes. Correa's administration succeeded in reducing the high levels of poverty and unemployment in Ecuador.

After being elected in , President Lenin Moreno 's government adopted economically liberal policies: reduction of public spending , trade liberalization , flexibility of the labour code, etc. In the area of taxes, the authorities aim to "encourage the return of investors" by granting amnesty to fraudsters and proposing measures to reduce tax rates for large companies. In addition, the government waives the right to tax increases in raw material prices and foreign exchange repatriations. In February , his visit to Washington was the first meeting between an Ecuadorian and U. The 11 April election run-off vote ended in a win for conservative former banker, Guillermo Lasso , taking Previously, President-elect Lasso finished second in the and presidential elections.

On 10 October, protesters overran the capital Quito causing the Government of Ecuador to relocate to Guayaquil , [45] but it was reported that the government still had plans to return to Quito. Ecuador is governed by a democratically elected president, for a four-year term. The current president of Ecuador, Guillermo Lasso, exercises his power from the presidential Palacio de Carondelet in Quito. The current constitution was written by the Ecuadorian Constituent Assembly elected in , and was approved by referendum in Since , voting is compulsory for all literate persons aged 18—65, optional for all other citizens. The executive branch includes 23 ministries. Provincial governors and councilors mayors, aldermen, and parish boards are directly elected.

There are thirteen permanent committees. The executive branch is led by the president, an office currently held by Guillermo Lasso. He is accompanied by the vice-president, elected for four years with the ability to be re-elected only once. As head of state and chief government official, he is responsible for public administration including the appointing of national coordinators, ministers, ministers of State and public servants. The executive branch defines foreign policy, appoints the Chancellor of the Republic, as well as ambassadors and consuls, being the ultimate authority over the Armed Forces of Ecuador , National Police of Ecuador , and appointing authorities.

The acting president's wife receives the title of First Lady of Ecuador. The legislative branch is embodied by the National Assembly , which is headquartered in the city of Quito in the Legislative Palace, and consists of assemblymen, divided into ten committees and elected for a four-year term. Fifteen national constituency elected assembly, two Assembly members elected from each province and one for every , inhabitants or fraction exceeding ,, according to the latest national population census.

In addition, statute determines the election of assembly of regions and metropolitan districts. Ecuador's judiciary has as its main body the Judicial Council, and also includes the National Court of Justice, provincial courts, and lower courts. Legal representation is made by the Judicial Council. The National Court of Justice is composed of 21 judges elected for a term of nine years. Judges are renewed by thirds every three years pursuant to the Judicial Code. These are elected by the Judicial Council on the basis of opposition proceedings and merits. The justice system is buttressed by the independent offices of public prosecutor and the public defender.

Auxiliary organs are as follows: notaries , court auctioneers, and court receivers. Also there is a special legal regime for Amerindians. The electoral system functions by authorities which enter only every four years or when elections or referendums occur. Its main functions are to organize, control elections, and punish the infringement of electoral rules. Its main body is the National Electoral Council , which is based in the city of Quito, and consists of seven members of the political parties most voted, enjoying complete financial and administrative autonomy. This body, along with the electoral court , forms the Electoral Branch which is one of Ecuador's five branches of government.

Branch members hold office for five years. This branch is responsible for promoting transparency and control plans publicly, as well as plans to design mechanisms to combat corruption, as also designate certain authorities, and be the regulatory mechanism of accountability in the country. A Amnesty International report was critical that there were scarce few prosecutions for human rights violations committed by security forces, and those only in police courts, which are not considered impartial or independent.

There are allegations that the security forces routinely torture prisoners. There are reports of prisoners having died while in police custody. Sometimes the legal process can be delayed until the suspect can be released after the time limit for detention without trial is exceeded. Prisons are overcrowded and conditions in detention centers are "abominable". Ecuador rejected the recommendation on decriminalization of libel.

According to Human Rights Watch HRW former president Correa intimidated journalists and subjected them to "public denunciation and retaliatory litigation". The sentences to journalists were years of imprisonment and millions of dollars of compensation, even though defendants had been pardoned. According to HRW, Correa's government weakened the freedom of press and independence of the judicial system. In Ecuador's current judicial system, judges are selected in a contest of merits, rather than government appointments.

However, the process of selection has been criticized as biased and subjective. In particular, the final interview is said to be given "excessive weighing". Judges and prosecutors that made decisions in favor of Correa in his lawsuits had received permanent posts, while others with better assessment grades had been rejected. The laws also forbid articles and media messages that could favor or disfavor some political message or candidate.

In the first half of , twenty private TV or radio stations were closed down. In July , the officials warned the judges that they would be sanctioned and possibly dismissed if they allowed the citizens to appeal to the protection of their constitutional rights against the state. People engaging in public protests against environmental and other issues are prosecuted for "terrorism and sabotage", which may lead to an eight-year prison sentence. According to Freedom House , restrictions on the media and civil society have decreased since Under President Rafael Correa , the country returned to OPEC before leaving again in under the instruction of President Moreno, citing its desire to increase crude oil importation to gain more revenue.

In Antarctica, Ecuador has maintained a peaceful research station for scientific study as a member nation of the Antarctica Treaty. Ecuador has often placed great emphasis on multilateral approaches to international issues. In , the Ecuadorian parliament adopted a Law on human mobility. The International Organization for Migration lauds Ecuador as the first state to have established the promotion of the concept of universal citizenship in its constitution , aiming to promote the universal recognition and protection of the human rights of migrants. Ecuador was an original member of the block, founded by left-wing governments in Latin America and the Caribbean in Ecuador is divided into 24 provinces Spanish: provincias , each with its own administrative capital:.

The provinces are divided into cantons and further subdivided into parishes parroquias. Regionalization, or zoning, is the union of two or more adjoining provinces in order to decentralize the administrative functions of the capital, Quito. In Ecuador, there are seven regions, or zones, each shaped by the following provinces:. Quito and Guayaquil are Metropolitan Districts. The Ecuadorian Armed Forces Fuerzas Armadas de la Republica de Ecuador , consists of the Army , Air Force , and Navy and have the stated responsibility for the preservation of the integrity and national sovereignty of the national territory.

The military tradition starts in Gran Colombia , where a sizable army was stationed in Ecuador due to border disputes with Peru, which claimed territories under its political control when it was a Spanish vice-royalty. General Jose Ma. Urbina and General Robles are examples of military figures who became presidents of the country in the early republican period. Due to the continuous border disputes with Peru, finally settled in the early s, and due to the ongoing problem with the Colombian guerrilla insurgency infiltrating Amazonian provinces, the Ecuadorian Armed Forces has gone through a series of changes. This army branch is considered the best elite force of Ecuador and is conformed by indigenous of the Amazon who combine their inherital experience for jungle dominance with modern army tactics.

The Ecuadorian Navy Academy c. The Air Academy "Cosme Rennella c. Of this, , km 2 , sq mi is land and 6, km 2 2, sq mi water. It has 2, km 1, mi of land boundaries, with Colombia in the north with a km mi border and Peru in the east and south with a 1, km mi border. It is the westernmost country that lies on the equator. Ecuador's capital is Quito, which is in the province of Pichincha in the Sierra region. Its largest city is Guayaquil, in the Guayas Province.

Cotopaxi , just south of Quito, is one of the world's highest active volcanoes. The top of Mount Chimborazo 6, m, or 20, ft, above sea level , Ecuador's tallest mountain, is the most distant point from the center of the Earth on the Earth's surface because of the ellipsoid shape of the planet. There is great variety in the climate, largely determined by altitude. It is mild year-round in the mountain valleys, with a humid subtropical climate in coastal areas and rainforest in lowlands. The Pacific coastal area has a tropical climate with a severe rainy season.

The climate in the Andean highlands is temperate and relatively dry, and the Amazon basin on the eastern side of the mountains shares the climate of other rainforest zones. Because of its location at the equator, Ecuador experiences little variation in daylight hours during the course of a year. Both sunrise and sunset occur each day at the two six o'clock hours.

The Andes is the watershed divisor between the Amazon watershed, which runs to the east, and the Pacific, including the north—south rivers Mataje, Santiago, Esmeraldas , Chone , Guayas , Jubones, and Puyango-Tumbes. Almost all of the rivers in Ecuador form in the Sierra region and flow east toward the Amazon River or west toward the Pacific Ocean.

The rivers rise from snowmelt at the edges of the snowcapped peaks or from the abundant precipitation that falls at higher elevations. In the Sierra region, the streams and rivers are narrow and flow rapidly over precipitous slopes. Rivers may slow and widen as they cross the hoyas yet become rapid again as they flow from the heights of the Andes to the lower elevations of the other regions. The highland rivers broaden as they enter the more level areas of the Costa and the Oriente. In the Costa, the external coast has mostly intermittent rivers that are fed by constant rains from December through May and become empty riverbeds during the dry season. The few exceptions are the longer, perennial rivers that flow throughout the external coast from the internal coast and La Sierra on their way to the Pacific Ocean.

The internal coast, by contrast, is crossed by perennial rivers that may flood during the rainy season, sometimes forming swamps. Major rivers in the Oriente include the Pastaza , Napo , and Putumayo. The Pastaza is formed by the confluence of the Chambo and the Patate rivers, both of which rise in the Sierra. The Pastaza includes the Agoyan waterfall, which at sixty-one meters feet is the highest waterfall in Ecuador. The Napo rises near Mount Cotopaxi and is the major river used for transport in the eastern lowlands. The Napo ranges in width from to 1, m 1, to 5, ft. In its upper reaches, the Napo flows rapidly until the confluence with one of its major tributaries, the Coca River, where it slows and levels off.

The Putumayo forms part of the border with Colombia. All of these rivers flow into the Amazon River. Several of the larger islands, however, have freshwater springs, although they are surrounded by the Pacific Ocean. Ecuador is one of seventeen megadiverse countries in the world according to Conservation International, [19] and it has the most biodiversity per square kilometer of any nation. In addition to more than 16, species of plants, the country has endemic reptiles, endemic amphibians, and 6, species of butterfly. Ecuador has the first constitution to recognize the rights of nature.

Eligibility and subsidy rates for this program are determined based on the poverty in the region, the number of hectares that will be protected, and the type of ecosystem of the land to be protected, among other factors. During this period, Texaco drilled wells in 15 petroleum fields and abandoned toxic wastewater pits, as well as other elements of the oil infrastructure. It is now known that these highly polluting and now obsolete technologies were used as a way to reduce expenses. Ecuador has a developing economy that is highly dependent on commodities, namely petroleum and agricultural products.

The country is classified as an upper-middle-income country. Ecuador's economy is the eighth largest in Latin America and experienced an average growth of 4. From this point, unemployment rates started a downward trend: 7. The extreme poverty rate has declined significantly between and However, starting in , with the bad economic performance of the nations where most Ecuadorian emigrants work, the reduction of poverty has been realized through social spending, mainly in education and health.

The trade balance with Argentina, Colombia, and Asia is negative. In the agricultural sector, Ecuador is a major exporter of bananas first place worldwide in production and export , flowers, and the seventh largest producer of cocoa. This city is also the largest business center of the country. Ecuador has negotiated bilateral treaties with other countries, besides belonging to the Andean Community of Nations , [] and an associate member of Mercosur.

Faced with the growth of the tourism sector, in June , the decision was taken to separate tourism from information, so that it is exclusively dedicated to promoting and strengthening this activity. Ecuador is a country with vast natural wealth. The diversity of its four regions has given rise to thousands of species of flora and fauna. It has approximately kinds of birds. The species of butterflies border 4,, the reptiles , the amphibians , and the mammals , among others. Not in vain, Ecuador is considered one of the 17 countries where the planet's highest biodiversity is concentrated, being also the largest country with diversity per km2 in the world.

Most of its fauna and flora lives in 26 protected areas by the state. Also, it has a huge culture spectrum. Since , with the government of Rafael Correa, the tourism brand "Ecuador Ama la Vida" has been transformed, with which the nation's tourism promotion would be sold. Focused on considering it as a country friendly and respectful of nature, natural biodiversity, and cultural diversity of the peoples. And for this, means of exploiting them are developed along with the private economy. Culturally, the Toquilla straw hat and the culture of the Zapara indigenous people are recognized.

The most popular sites for national and foreign tourists have different nuances due to the various tourist activities offered by the country. The rehabilitation and reopening of the Ecuadorian railroad and use of it as a tourist attraction is one of the recent developments in transportation matters. The roads of Ecuador in recent years have undergone important improvement. The major routes are Pan American under enhancement from four to six lanes from Rumichaca to Ambato, the conclusion of 4 lanes on the entire stretch of Ambato and Riobamba and running via Riobamba to Loja.

Other new developments include the National Unity bridge complex in Guayaquil, the bridge over the Napo river in Francisco de Orellana, the Esmeraldas River Bridge in the city of the same name, and, perhaps the most remarkable of all, the Bahia — San Vincente Bridge, being the largest on the Latin American Pacific coast. Cuenca 's tramway is the largest public transport system in the city and the first modern tramway in Ecuador.

It was inaugurated on March 8, It has It will transport , passagers daily. Its route starts in the south of Cuenca and ends in the north at the Parque Industrial neighbourhood. In the case of Guayaquil it involved a new air terminal, once considered the best in South America and the best in Latin America [] and in Quito where an entire new airport has been built in Tababela and was inaugurated in February , with Canadian assistance.

However, the main road leading from Quito city centre to the new airport will only be finished in late , making current travelling from the airport to downtown Quito as long as two hours during rush hour. Ecuador's population is ethnically diverse and the estimates put Ecuador's population at 17,, Even though Ecuador's white population during its colonial era were mainly descendants from Spain, today Ecuador's white population is a result of a mixture of European immigrants, predominantly from Spain with people from Italy, Germany, France, and Switzerland who have settled in the early 20th century.

In addition, there is a small European Jewish Ecuadorian Jews population, which is based mainly in Quito and to a lesser extent in Guayaquil. The mostly rural Montubio population of the coastal provinces of Ecuador, who might be classified as Pardo account for 7. In the Highland Andes where a predominantly Mestizo, white and Amerindian population exist, the African presence is almost non-existent except for a small community in the province of Imbabura called Chota Valley.

Among the people who have a religion, In the rural parts of Ecuador, Amerindian beliefs and Catholicism are sometimes syncretized. Most festivals and annual parades are based on religious celebrations, many incorporating a mixture of rites and icons. The first Jews arrived in Ecuador in the 16th and 17th centuries. Nevertheless, this number is declining because young people leave the country for the United States or Israel. The Community has a Jewish Center with a synagogue , a country club, and a cemetery. It supports the "Albert Einstein School", where Jewish history, religion, and Hebrew classes are offered.

There are very small communities in Cuenca. This community works independently from the "Jewish Community of Ecuador" and is composed of only 30 people. Iglesia y Convento de San Francisco in Quito. The Ecuadorian constitution recognizes the "pluri-nationality" of those who want to exercise their affiliation with their native ethnic groups. Thus, in addition to criollos , mestizos , and Afro-Ecuadorians, some people belong to the Amerindian nations scattered in a few places in the coast, Quechua Andean villages, and the Amazonian jungle. According to genealogical DNA testing done in , the average Ecuadorian is estimated to be The majority of Ecuadorians live in the central provinces, the Andes mountains, or along the Pacific coast.

Birth rate is for each death. Marriages are usually from 14 and above using parental consent. About Divorce rates are moderate. The five largest cities in the country are Quito 2. There's a small East Asian community mainly consisting of those of Japanese and Chinese descent, whose ancestors arrived as miners, farmhands and fishermen in the late 19th century. In the early years of World War II, Ecuador still admitted a certain number of immigrants, and in , when several South American countries refused to accept Jewish refugees from Germany aboard the ship Koenigstein , Ecuador granted them entry permits.

In the s the Italians were the third largest national group in terms of numbers of immigrants, since Ecuador like Mexico and the Andean countries did not receive a significant total number of immigrants. It can be noted that, after World War I, people from Liguria, still constituted the majority of the flow, even though they then represented only one third of the total number of immigrants in Ecuador. This situation came from the improvement of the economic situation in Liguria.

The classic paradigm of the Italian immigrant today was not that of the small trader from Liguria as it had been before; those who emigrated to Ecuador were professionals and technicians, employees and religious people from South-Central Italy. It must be remembered that many immigrants, a remarkable number of Italians among them, moved to the Ecuadorian port from Peru to escape from the Peruvian war with Chile. The Italian government came to be more interested in the emigration phenomenon in Ecuador because of the necessity of finding an outlet for the large number of immigrants who traditionally went to the United States but who could no longer enter this country because of the new measures that imposed restrictions in the s.

Most of these communities and their descendants are located in the Guayas region of the country.

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