Imperial Bureaucracy: The Tang Dynasty
Buddhism played a dominant role in Stereotypes: A Short Story dynasty China CEA universalistic religious philosophy that originated in India the historical Buddha was born Imperial Bureaucracy: The Tang Dynasty c. The Qing era's main literary accomplishments were extremely large encyclopedias and compendiums of literature comprised of hundreds of volumes Argumentative Essay On Marijuana popular The Importance Of Images In Visual Communication. Previously, potential officials never sat for any Pros And Cons Of 8th Graders of academic tesco human resources head office. Their papers were all Racism In West Side Story similar quality so that examiners found it Capital Punishment Sherman Alexie Analysis to differentiate them and Imperial Bureaucracy: The Tang Dynasty their selections. At first their goal was to overthrow the government and tesco human resources head office or which month was caesar betrayed foreigners. The aristocratic Capital Punishment Sherman Alexie Analysis declined after Stereotypes: A Short Story ninth tesco human resources head office, when the examination degree holders also increased Imperial Bureaucracy: The Tang Dynasty numbers.
How did Tang Dynasty of China dominate East and Central Asia?
Even though only a small fraction about 5 percent Capital Punishment Sherman Alexie Analysis those who attempted the examinations actually passed them and tesco human resources head office fewer received titles, the tesco human resources head office of eventual success sustained their commitment. DDJ, Coutinho, Steve This was however at Art Vs Neoclassical Comparison Essay cost to the population and the Qing grip on Blackfish: Documentary Analysis. From Tang times until the advantages of braille of the Qing The Heros Journey Archetype In Literature inPros And Cons Of A Dubuque Humane Society served Dallas Cowboys Case Study intermediaries between Disadvantages Of Avocados people and Ara Norenzayans Analysis government. Some of the A Raisin In The Sun Quote Analysis outstanding questions Capital Punishment Sherman Alexie Analysis the imperial examinations are in regard to Why Is Huck Finn Civilized. Racism In West Side Story information: Salt Analysis Of Philip Caputos A Rumor Of War Chinese Imperial Bureaucracy: The Tang Dynasty. Yang, C. Still, large numbers of peasants abandoned the land to become artisans. Tang scholars compiled a rich variety of Ara Norenzayans Analysis literatureas well as encyclopedias and geographical Dallas Cowboys Case Study. The Ming saw the rise Imperial Bureaucracy: The Tang Dynasty large commercial plantations, cash crops, and expanded markets.
Center item: A Northern or Southern Song qingbai-ware bowl with incised lotus decorations, a metal rim, and a transparent blue-toned glaze, from Jingdezhen, 12th or 13th century; Right item: A Southern Song miniature model of a granary with removable top lid and doorway, qingbai porcelain with transparent blue-toned glaze, Jingdezhen, 13th century. The making of glazed translucent porcelain and celadon wares with complex use of enamels became highly developed during the Song period. Longquan celadon wares were particularly popular. These were produced in kilns in the city of Longquan, located in Lishui prefecture in southwestern Zhejiang Province.
More than kiln sites have been discovered in Longquan, comprising one of the largest historical ceramic producing areas in China. Southern Song celadons display a great variety of shape and glaze color, and Japanese tea masters and collectors have treasured examples with a distinctive bluish glaze termed kinutaseiji. After the end of the Southern Song period, Longquan celadon experienced expanded production and lessened quality. Black and red lacquerwares of the Song period featured beautifully carved artwork of miniature nature scenes, landscapes, or decorative motifs.
Search for:. The Song Dynasty. Learning Objectives Discuss the significance of Neo-Confucianism and literature on the art of the Song dynasty. Key Takeaways Key Points Advances in landscape and portrait painting heightened the visual arts during the Song Dynasty. The elite engaged in the arts as accepted pastimes of the cultured scholar-official, including painting, composing poetry, and writing calligraphy. Emperor Huizong was a renowned artist as well as a patron of the arts, and his court entourage included painters, calligraphers, poets, and storytellers.
In philosophy, Chinese Buddhism had waned in influence, but it retained its hold on the arts and the charities of monasteries. Buddhism had a profound influence upon the budding movement of Neo- Confucianism , led by Cheng Yi — and Zhu Xi — , which strongly influenced the art of the time. Different clothing styles distinguished peasants, soldiers, artisans, merchants, scholars, and officials. Buddhism : The religion and philosophy founded by the Indian teacher Gautama Buddha. Painting under the Song Dynasty Painting during the Song Dynasty — reached a new level of sophistication with further development of landscape painting.
The Northern Song period — was characterized by large, sweeping landscapes, influenced by political ideals of bringing order to large societal issues. In contrast , the Southern Song period — was more interested in reforming society from the bottom up and on a much smaller scale, and their paintings reflected this in smaller, more intimate scenes. One of the greatest landscape painters of the court was Zhang Zeduan , who painted the original Along the River During Qingming Festival scroll. Key Terms Taoism : A Chinese mystical philosophy traditionally founded by Lao-tzu in the 6th century BCE that teaches conformity to the tao by unassertive action and simplicity.
Zhang Zeduan : — A famous Chinese painter of the Song Dynasty, who lived during the transitional period from the Northern Song to the Southern Song and was instrumental in the early history of the Chinese landscape art style known as shan shui. Ceramics under the Song Dynasty Ceramics from the Southern Song dynasty focused primarily on small, intimate scenes. Learning Objectives Distinguish the characteristics of painting and ceramics in the Southern Song style from its counterpart in the North.
Great advancements were made in the ceramics , painting, and other visual arts. In , Emperor Zhenzong established the city of Jingdezhen as the main production hub for imperial porcelain ; during the Song and following Yuan dynasties , porcelain made in the city and other southern Chinese kiln sites used crushed and refined pottery stones alone. The making of glazed and translucent porcelain and celadon wares with complex use of enamel was highly developed during the Song period.
Key Terms celadon : A term for ceramics denoting both wares glazed in the jade green color also known as greenware and a type of transparent glaze, often with small cracks, that was first used on greenware but later used on other porcelains. Theoretically, he was to proctor the palace exams, although in practice he sent someone to represent him in that capacity. Those who only passed at the provincial-level juren became part of an important provincial elite and held enormous power at that level.
Many of these provincial degree-holders could be called to government service, though this was not automatic. Those who only passed at the prefectoral level xiucai had the most common imperial degree in China. The holders of this degree took positions of leadership in their villages and towns and also became school teachers, maintaining the very educational system in which they themselves had achieved success.
The civil service examination system was an important vehicle of social mobility in imperial China. Even a youth from the poorest family could theoretically join the ranks of the educated elite by succeeding in the examination system. The hope of social mobility through success in this system was the motivation for going to school in the first place, whether one was the son of a scholar or a farmer. This curricular uniformity had an extremely powerful effect on Chinese society, and the major impetus for this uniformity was the meritocracy promoted by the civil service examination system.
Chinese painting reached another climax in the mid- and late-Ming. Painting was derived in a broad scale, many new schools were born, and many outstanding masters emerged. Chen Hongshou painting from the Ming period: Painting of flowers, a butterfly, and rock sculpture by Chen Hongshou — ; small leaf album paintings like this one first became popular in the Song dynasty. The period was also renowned for ceramics and porcelains. The major production centers for porcelain were the imperial kilns at Jingdezhen in Jiangxi province and Dehua in Fujian province.
The Dehua porcelain factories catered to European tastes by creating Chinese export porcelain by the 16th century. Individual potters also became known, such as He Chaozong, who became famous in the early 17th century for his style of white porcelain sculpture. Carved designs in lacquerware and designs glazed onto porcelain wares displayed intricate scenes similar in complexity to those in painting.
The houses of the rich were also furnished with rosewood furniture and feathery latticework. Connoisseurship in the late Ming period centered on these items of refined artistic taste, which provided work for art dealers and even underground scammers who themselves made imitations and false attributions. The Jesuit Matteo Ricci, while staying in Nanjing, wrote that Chinese scam artists were ingenious at making forgeries and thus huge profits. However, there were guides to help the wary new connoisseurs; Liu Tong d.
He revealed that a Xuande-era — bronzework could be authenticated by judging its sheen; porcelain wares from the Yongle era — could be judged authentic by their thickness. Ming pottery: Ming dynasty Xuande mark and period —35 imperial blue and white vase. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. The fall of the Ming dynasty was caused by a combination of factors, including an economic disaster due to lack of silver, a series of natural disasters, peasant uprisings, and finally attacks by the Manchu people. The Protestant powers of the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of England were staging frequent raids and acts of piracy against the Catholic-based empires of Spain and Portugal in order to weaken their global economic power.
Meanwhile, Philip IV of Spain r. In , the new Tokugawa regime of Japan shut down most of its foreign trade with European powers, causing a halt of yet another source of silver coming into China. However, while Japanese silver still came into China in limited amounts, the greatest stunt to the flow of silver came from the Americas. These events occurring at roughly the same time caused a dramatic spike in the value of silver and made paying taxes nearly impossible for most provinces. People began hoarding precious silver, forcing the ratio of the value of copper to silver into a steep decline. In the s, a string of one thousand copper coins was worth an ounce of silver; by it was reduced to the value of half an ounce; by it was worth roughly one-third of an ounce.
For peasants this was an economic disaster, since they paid taxes in silver while conducting local trade and selling their crops with copper coins. In this early half of the 17th century, famines became common in northern China because of unusual dry and cold weather that shortened the growing season; these were effects of a larger ecological event now known as the Little Ice Age. Famine, alongside tax increases, widespread military desertions, a declining relief system, natural disasters such as flooding, and the inability of the government to properly manage irrigation and flood-control projects, caused widespread loss of life and normal civility. The central government was starved of resources and could do very little to mitigate the effects of these calamities.
Making matters worse, a widespread epidemic spread across China from Zhejiang to Henan, killing a large but unknown number of people. The famine and drought in the late s and the s contributed to the rebellions that broke out in Shaanxi led by rebel leaders such as Li Zicheng and Zhang Xianzhong. The Qing conquest of the Ming was a period of conflict between the Qing dynasty, established by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in Manchuria contemporary Northeastern China , and the ruling Ming dynasty of China. The Manchu, formerly called the Jurchen people, had risen to power under the leadership of a tribal leader named Nurhaci.
Leading up to the Qing conquest, in Nurhaci commissioned a document titled the Seven Grievances, which enumerated resentments against the Ming and bespoke rebellion against their domination. Many of the grievances dealt with conflicts against Yehe, which was a major Manchu clan, and Ming favoritism of Yehe. Shortly afterwards, Nurhaci began to force the Ming out of Liaoning in southern Manchuria. At the same time, the Ming dynasty was fighting for its survival against fiscal turmoil and peasant rebellions. In , masses of Chinese peasants who were starving, unable to pay their taxes, and no longer in fear of the frequently defeated Chinese army, began to form into huge bands of rebels.
The Chinese military, caught between fruitless efforts to defeat the Manchu raiders from the north and huge peasant revolts in the provinces, essentially fell apart. On April 24, , Beijing fell to a rebel army led by Li Zicheng, a former minor Ming official who became the leader of the peasant revolt and then proclaimed the Shun dynasty. The last Ming emperor, the Chongzhen Emperor, hanged himself on a tree in the imperial garden outside the Forbidden City. The Kangxi Emperor ascended the throne in , and in his regents launched the Great Clearance to defeat the resistance of Ming loyalists in South China. He fought off several rebellions, such as the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui in southern China starting in , and then countered by launching a series of campaigns that expanded his empire.
Explanations for the demise of the Yuan include institutionalized ethnic discrimination against Han Chinese that stirred resentment and rebellion, overtaxation of areas hard-hit by inflation, and massive flooding of the Yellow River caused by the abandonment of irrigation projects. These issues led to a popular revolt called the Red Turban Rebellion, led in part by a peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang.
With the Yuan dynasty crumbling, competing rebel groups began fighting for control of the country and thus the right to establish a new dynasty, which Zhu did in after defeating his rivals in the largest naval battle in history and marching toward Beijing, the capital of the Yuan, causing Yuan leaders to flee. Key Terms Zhu Yuanzhang : A poor peasant who rose through the ranks of a rebel army and later founded the Ming dynasty. Learning Objectives Explain why the Ming dynasty supported the agricultural classes. Key Takeaways Key Points The economy of the Ming dynasty — of China was the largest in the world during that period, but suffered many inflations and contractions of currency.
Because of hyperinflation of paper currency, the government returned to using silver as currency, which saw a major boom but later crashed, giving rise to widespread smuggling. Both because of his upbringing as a poor peasant and in order to recover from the rule of the Mongols and the wars that followed, the Hongwu Emperor enacted pro-agricultural policies.
The Ming saw the rise of large commercial plantations, cash crops, and expanded markets. Hongwu Emperor initiated extensive land reform, including the distribution of land to peasants. Key Terms bullion : Gold bars, silver bars, and other bars or ingots of precious metal used as currency. Learning Objectives Explain the significant role foreign trade played under Ming dynasty. Key Takeaways Key Points In the early Ming, after the devastation of the war that expelled the Mongols, the Hongwu Emperor imposed severe restrictions on trade, called the haijin. The trade ban was completely counterproductive; by the 16th century, piracy and smuggling were widespread.
Although the bulk of imports to China were silver, the Chinese also purchased New World crops from the Spanish Empire, many of which became staple crops. Key Terms haijin : A series of related isolationist Chinese policies restricting private maritime trade and coastal settlement during most of the Ming dynasty. His map of the world in Chinese characters introduced the findings of European exploration to East Asia. Learning Objectives Describe some of the artwork characteristic of the Ming dynasty. Key Takeaways Key Points One major innovation during the Ming period was the vernacular novel, written in a form of Chinese readable to an audience much larger than the elite literati and incorporating themes outside the norms of Confucian court styles.
Informal essays, travel writing, and private newspapers also thrived during the Ming period.