Roundtech Case Summary

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Roundtech Case Summary



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Primary sources of information are used only at later steps, when only a small number of remaining local product markets have to be evaluated in detail. Assessment criteria concerning the macro-environment Criteria for the assessment of country markets can be most easily found in their macro-environment. Geographic proximity The location of country markets is often used as a basis for evaluation. Physical proximity most often results in low psychological distance, which leads to a perception of lower market-entry risk. It can make sense, for example if the costs of transporting a product are high relative to production costs. However, a different market-entry technique, such as direct investment, may be appropriate for a more distant market and yield considerably higher long-term profits.

But there is no guarantee that two target markets will be similar. Therefore, grouping geographically close countries have some value, but is rarely enough. Central and Eastern Europe: Cf. Latin America and East Asia: below. They are of interest because of their supplies in critical raw materials, their fast developing economies, and their changing political and economic environments. Latin America For decades, Imports were discouraged or even prohibited. Governments of the most important countries are pursuing remarkably similar market policies, including trade liberalization, privatization, and fiscal discipline.

Most countries have returned to the democratic fold. With a booming population of million, this market region has an interesting potential. An improvement of the education, key to competitiveness and population control the average is a six-grade education! But if properly recruited, trained and motivated, they can be as productive as US workers. The long pent-up demand for quality goods and services in areas such as cars, cosmetics, clothes, computers, cellular phones, consultancy and canned goods represents an attractive business potential.

The payoff from privatization and trade liberalization has gone to the higher income classes. Working conditions are bad. But it experienced ups and downs. After a period of growth until , different factors e. Their growth in basic industries such as steel, machinery, pulp and paper, gas, hydroelectric power, and home appliances is based on imports of capital, machinery, materials, and intermediate goods. They are attractive markets if governments can secure economic social stability but never sure! Future issues box 2. A free trade area tying up all the nations of the Americas? Pros: It would channel investment and technology to Latin nations, restructuring their economies It would give US firms a head start in capturing business there.

Latin America opponents: the heavily subsidized US agricultural sector would partly destroy the Latin American agriculture potential disaster for all countries heavily depending on that part of their economy. East Asia In the first half of the s, South and East Asia experienced the fastest economic growth in the world? But in Southeast Asia countries were sharply hit by banking, currency, and foreign debt crises. Since , the economies have stabilized and are back on a less steep growth path? Enduring economic stability will depend on the stability of the currencies and the financial sectors.

Most of these nations practice a brand capitalism that combines industrial policy with freewheeling competition. Thailand and Malaysia started their development later but since then have attracted much interest. Despite the financial crisis, the NICs remained highly competitive, export-oriented manufacturing countries thanks to low wages, long working hours, and strong management.

Political stability and market-oriented public policies have been top priorities. All the NICs import technology and consumer products. The problems are still a partial lack of modern infrastructure and an increasing lack of a highly educated workforce. The lack of qualified workforce increases production costs and demand for capital goods. In reaction, an increasing amount of manufacturing has been transferred to neighboring countries with lower wages China, Indonesia, or Vietnam, or even back to parts of Europe.

They were granted of preferential treatments. Economic reforms were needed. To attract foreign capital, eight publicly owned companies were privatized and markets opened up further recovered quickly. In spite of high barriers against imports, it has become a viable market for high technology. The high surpluses in its trade balances forced the government to open up its markets. But because of its high percentage of exports to the US and its strong reliance on exports of electronic product and IT, the country was more strongly hi by the economic downturn in the US and the worldwide crisis of the electronics and IT sectors. They set up plants for products that can no longer be manufactured competitively in Taiwan. Since foreign investment have increased every year.

In China was the second country attracting the most direct investments. Standard of living is increasing, but labor costs in China are still among the lowest. Hong Kong: Handed back to China in , it was already economically linked before that, investing a lot in each other. It will remain a special region, keeping its economic and social system for another 50 years. HK has the second largest per capita income in East Asia after Japan. The fast economic development results in a rising demand for consumer goods, in particular foreign brands. Not able to pay full wages anymore, laws concerning bankruptcy, the dissolution of conglomerates and transparency in the top governance structures of big companies have been voted.

Economic problems need to be solved in order to further raise the level of economic development: 1. Further spending is needed to build the country, but the government struggles to collect revenues 2. The lack of efficiency of its state-run enterprises that still lose money. The banking system is weak, which limits the development of the private sectors limited access to bank financing. Insufficient infrastructure and deterioration in the environment.

Strategy box 2. Motorola enjoyed the top position in sales in China, but today suffers from competition from local suppliers. As competition grows, China is no longer the dynamic market it was. A particular challenge for the company is the location of that demand. Now companies need to look to smaller cities and the countryside for growth. That is where local competitors have a big advantage. Natural environment Evaluating natural environment may help identify markets with differing attractiveness. But it cannot be taken alone to create the ranking. It would overlook the complexities of business systems. Political system. Even if country markets could be compared and grouped according to their similar political systems, those systems may generate quite different public policies.

Economic conditions may still differ significantly and result in different business opportunities. Legal system It determines the rules that govern the conduct of business in that country, and the norms and standards that products and services have to fulfill. Country markets may be rated according to whether their legal systems are based on common or code law. But 2 countries belonging to the same group of law systems may still have different regulations governing business activities. The UK regulates advertising more strictly than does the US. By the same token, norms and regulations specific to the business of the firm, e. The social organization of a society influences disposable income and purchasing processes.

Education and living conditions influence product choices as well as the communication methods available to marketers. For example, the use of advertising and packaging is simplified when the same language can be used in different country. But although language must be considered can the firm communicate effectively in this language? For example, grouping countries with a language derived from Latin would result in a heterogeneous set of markets Argentina, France, etc. Markets differ significantly from other according to the religion. Therefore, in some cases religion may represent a relevant criterion for determining the attractiveness of markets e.

Saudi Arabia is attractive for an orange juice producer, as alcohol is avoided for religious reasons. But it is not a viable criterion because countries with the same dominant religion can still have big differences. Level of economic development We can range countries according to their levels of economic development. It results in groups of markets with comparable average purchasing power, demand for industrial products, and development of infrastructure. On this basis, oil-producing countries are in the same income group than Canada, Italy, etc. For example, a firm considering developing countries should be aware of the big difference in the consumption patterns between the well-educated and affluent people of a society and its workers, unemployed, and rural poor.

Thus, differences in income, age, and educational level within a population together with environment they live in give rise to different lifestyles that must be taken into account in marketing consumer products or services to developing countries. Another factor that has to be considered is the dynamics of economic development. This approach is useful but still oriented too much toward national averages, and product markets are not necessarily homogenous. Cooperative agreements Every company assessing the attractiveness of country markets must know whether the countries involved have signed cooperative agreements with others.

Each type of economic cooperation has different effects on the conduct of business and the nature of competition. The following effects on international marketing can be expected: 1. Larger markets accompanied by opportunities for mass production, mass marketing, and more efficient use of resources. As a result, industries will increasingly move toward duality: a few major international competitors involved in most of the product market segments, and small competitors focused on a niche. Higher income in the cooperating markets, which in turn stimulates internal trade and creates opportunities for external suppliers of industrial goods, consumer goods, and services.

But external suppliers also find increased business opportunities. The possibility of direct investment, to avoid tariff and non-tariff barriers and to profit from the increase in internal trade. Indeed, sometimes the members of a cooperative agreement abolish the barriers among themselves, but keep barriers for non-members e. This gives an advantage to companies located inside the barrier wall. An increase in the number of mergers, acquisitions, and alliances initiated by firms inside as well as outside cooperative agreements. Such subsidiaries are also able to take advantage of subsidized research programs within a cooperative agreement, which would not be available to the foreign firm on its own. But economic cooperation does not mean that customer expectations, tastes or behavior become unified!

We observe increasing similarities but differences will stay. Closer economic cooperation mainly intensifies competition, allows companies to profit from regional cost and regulatory differences, and makes international business easier, but before choosing a country market, the company needs to examine closer its specific environments. Assessment criteria concerning the operating environment International marketers may use criteria concerning the operating environment relevant to their business to assess the attractiveness of country markets. To make the assessment process fast and cost efficient, criteria demanding secondary data will be preferred.

Structure of the local operating environment The company should know who, besides potential customers and competitors, are the major stakeholders in its product market, what interests they have, and what influence they can exert on market processes. Building relationships with these stakeholders is easier if their structure is comparable to the structure in currently served markets. If neither the number of customers nor their purchasing power can be determined from available statistics, total exports of similar products from the most important industrialized countries can estimate the market volume. However, such an estimate does not account for exports from the country in question or for the activity of domestic competitors.

Management can compare the size of the same industries in a potential market. Relating those figures to the market share attained in served markets and expressing market share in terms of total sales leads to a rough estimate of the market volume in the potential market. Early stages: greater potential, growing market volume, improving return on investment. Later stages: stagnant or declining sales, low potential return on investment for new entrants.

The potential of total sales in a market is never totally exhausted. Toolbox 2. Ways to increase the current volume of total sales achieved : Ways to increase the current volume of total sales achieved : The assessment of gaps between the current treatment of markets and the aspirations of the various stakeholders reveals potentials for increasing the total sales volume of the market. Through a gap analyzis, the company can estimate the potential additional sales to be generated through a specific marketing mix. Potentiaal of total sales in a markect Potentiaal of total sales in a markect Volume of total sales in a market.

If no appropriate intermediaries exist, international marketers may have to invest considerably to enter a new country market effectively. Special problems can occur: for example in Japan, transfer business from one intermediary to another is unusual, hence a close inspection in more important. Compared to consumer markets, most b2b and government markets have a limited number of customers, who are nearly exhaustively listed. As it is transparent, it is important to have good relationships with the customers they will choose you when needed!

Close contacts are based on a local presence. Many auto firms commonly sign long-range contracts with their suppliers. Strong links. Supply risks should still be evaluated!

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