Barbara Ehrenreich Nickel And Dimed Analysis
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Barbara Ehrenreich on Nickel and Dimed - The John Adams Institute
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Semi-professionals with some college degrees constitute the lower middle class. Their class models show the lower middle class positioned slightly above the middle of the socio-economic strata. Those in blue- and pink-collar as well as clerical occupations are referred to as working class in these class models. Definitions of the term working class vary greatly. While Lloyd Warner found the vast majority of the American population to be in either the upper-lower class or lower-lower class in , modern-day experts such as Michael Zweig, an economist for Stony Brook University , argue that the working class constitutes most of the population.
The lower classes constituting roughly a fifth to a quarter of American society consists mainly of low-rung retail and service workers as well as the frequently unemployed and those not able to work. Hunger and food insecurity were present in the lives of 3. Before industrialization, "yeoman farmers"—self-sufficient, politically independent landowners—made up a large portion of the country's population. Jeffersonian democracy and Jacksonian democracy successfully expanded the political rights of the yeomen, and the geographical extent of the nation to provide them farms. This culminated in the Homestead Act of which provided hundreds of thousands of free farms.
Before large southern plantations used slaves. After emancipation , a system of sharecropping and tenant farming for both whites and blacks in the South provided a semi-independent status for farmers who did not own their land. In contemporary times, migrant agricultural workers—mostly Mexicans—perform field and packing work. Only 0. Once the dominant American social class, this group diminished in overall numbers during the 20th century, as farm holdings grew more consolidated, farming operations became more mechanized, and most of the population migrated to urban areas. Today, the agricultural sector has essentially taken on the characteristics of business and industry generally.
In contemporary usage, a "farmer" is someone who owns and operates a farm, which more often than not will be a sizable business enterprise; "agricultural workers" or "farm workers", who perform the actual work associated with farming, typically come out of the lower classes; indeed, they are often near-destitute immigrants or migrant farm workers. In this respect, farming mirrors big business: like any enterprise, a farm has owners who may be a family or a corporation , salaried managers, supervisors, foremen and workers. With the number of farms steadily diminishing, the stereotypical humble homestead is increasingly the exception, for viable farming now means agribusiness; the large amounts of capital required to operate a competitive farm require large-scale organization.
Among farmers, "income" in the conventional sense is not an accurate standard of wealth measurement, because farmers typically keep their official income low by placing their assets into farming corporations rather than drawing the money directly. The stereotypical poor, marginal farmer "eking out a living" from the soil, an image deeply ingrained in most Americans' minds by folklore, films, and even history texts, has now been largely displaced by agribusiness, which has bought them out and consolidated their holdings.
Income also had a significant impact on health as those with higher incomes had better access to healthcare facilities, higher life expectancy , lower infant mortality rate and increased health consciousness. In , Harvard researchers divided the United States into "eight Americas. Life expectancy ranges from Furthermore, like other post-industrial nations , the United States saw increased health consciousness among persons of higher social status. Persons of higher status are less likely to smoke, more likely to exercise regularly, and be more conscious of their diet. One can therefore conclude that low socio-economic status contributes to a person's likelihood of being obese. Income remains one of the main indicators of class, as it commonly reflects educational attainment as well as occupation.
Some academics consider American society sociologically and economically fragmented in such a manner that no clear class distinctions can be made. This means that there are no pronounced breaks in socioeconomic strata, which makes class division highly subjective and disputable. Lloyd Warner also asserts the existence of class markers:. We are proud of those facts of American life that fit the pattern we are taught but somehow we are often ashamed of those equally important social facts which demonstrate the presence of social class. Consequently, we tend to deny them, or worse, denounce them and by doing so we tend to deny their existence and magically make them disappear from consciousness. Warner asserts that social class is as old as civilization itself and has been present in nearly every society from before the Roman Empire , through medieval times, and to the modern-day United States.
He believes that complex societies such as the United States need an equally complex social hierarchy. The existence of class differences in American society has long been the focus of popular culture, whether in the form of books, films, or plays. Social class, for example, is a theme used in the production Mister Roberts , in a scene where the ship's captain displays resentment toward the title character, contrasting his own impoverished background to that of Roberts himself:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Household Personal Affluence Social class Income inequality gender pay gap racial pay gap. Lists by income. Moore, Some Principles of Stratification , .
Main article: Educational attainment in the United States. See also: Working class in the United States. Further information: American upper class. Main article: American middle class. Further information: Rural health. United States portal. University of Delaware. Retrieved 10 June Occupation and Class Consciousness in America. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN The American Class Structure. Retrieved July 25, Society in Focus : An Introduction to Sociology. Hickey, Joseph V. Boston [Mass. ISBN X. OCLC Sawyer; Carl M. Wahlstrom Boston, MA: Pearson.
Social Class and Stratification. Archived from the original on December 30, Retrieved February 8, Archived from the original on March 19, Retrieved December 9, American Sociological Review. ISSN JSTOR The New York Times. May 15, Retrieved July 8, Archived from the original on July 20, Retrieved October 25, Retrieved July 31, Archived from the original on September 29, Retrieved December 27, Retrieved January 12, Retrieved January 13, Archived from the original on December 16, Retrieved August 21, Many people's experience is of a mixed class culture.
Differences of experience socialize most American people. Worlds of pain : life in the working-class family. New York: Basic Books. Cookson, Jr. Preparing for power. Basic Books published OL W. Wikidata Q Retrieved August 29, Retrieved August 28, Archived from the original on June 30, Retrieved June 29, Retrieved February 15, New York, NY: Pearson. PLOS Med.
PMC PMID Lay summary — proto Retrieved December 13, Archived from the original on November 29, Retrieved December 14, Archived from the original PDF on September 23, Voting Registration in the Election of Current Population Reports. Washington D. Horton and Chester L. Social class. Status Stratum Economic classes. By demographic. Administrative detainee Alien illegal immigrant refugee Citizen dual or multiple native-born naturalized second-class Clique adolescent Convicted Migrant worker Political prisoner Stateless. Aristocracy Hanseaten Patrician Political Royal family.
Clergy Knowledge worker Professor. Bourgeoisie Petite bourgeoisie Lower middle class Upper middle class. Lumpenproletariat Proletariat Working poor. By country or region. Household Inequality Personal Poverty. Education Homelessness Home-ownership. Demographics of the United States. Demographic history. United States articles. Outline of U. District courts Courts of appeals Supreme Court. Ages of consent Capital punishment Crime incarceration Criticism of government Discrimination affirmative action antisemitism hair texture intersex rights Islamophobia LGBT rights racism same-sex marriage Drug policy Energy policy Environmental issues Environmental movement Climate change Environmental education Gun politics Health care abortion health insurance hunger obesity smoking Human rights Immigration illegal International rankings National security Mass surveillance Terrorism Separation of church and state.
Outline Index. Social class in North America. Dependencies and other territories. Categories : Social class in the United States Social status. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: postscript Webarchive template wayback links All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from January Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September Articles with unsourced statements from August Webarchive template other archives. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Add links. Source: US Census Bureau, ; income statistics for the year Ivy league education common. Ivy League education common.
Highly-educated often with graduate degrees , most commonly salaried, professionals and middle management with large work autonomy. Generally have college degrees. Semi-professionals and craftsmen with a roughly average standard of living. Most have some college education and are white-collar. How to Survive a Plague follows his acclaimed documentary of the same name, compiling a definitive work on AIDS activism.
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