Drive Reduction Theory

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Drive Reduction Theory

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Instincts, Arousal, Needs, Drives: Drive-Reduction and Cognitive Theories - MCAT - Khan Academy

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In the presence of a passive audience, an individual is in a heightened state of arousal. Increased arousal, or stress , causes the individual to enact behaviours that form dominant responses, since an individual's dominant response is the most likely response, given the skills which are available. If the dominant response is correct, then social presence enhances performance of the task. However, if the dominant response is incorrect, social presence produces an impaired performance. Increasing performance of well learned tasks and impairing performance on poorly learned tasks.

Such behaviour was first noticed by Triplett while observing the cyclists who were racing together versus cyclists who were racing alone. A similar effect was observed by Chen in ants building colonies. Zajonc's drive theory is based on an experiment [16] involving the investigation of the effect of social facilitation in cockroaches. Zajonc devised a study in which individual cockroaches were released into a tube, at the end of which there was a light. In the presence of other cockroaches as spectators, cockroaches were observed to achieve a significantly faster time in reaching the light than those in the control, no-spectator group.

However, when cockroaches in the same conditions were given a maze to negotiate, performance was impaired in the spectator condition, demonstrating that incorrect dominant responses in the presence of an audience impair performance. Cottrell's evaluation apprehension model later refined this theory to include yet another variable in the mechanisms of social facilitation. He suggested that the correctness of dominant responses only plays a role in social facilitation when there is an expectation of social reward or punishment based on performance. His study differs in design from Zajonc's as he introduced a separate condition in which participants were given tasks to perform in the presence of an audience that was blindfolded, and thus unable to evaluate the participant's performance.

It was found that no social facilitation effect occurred, and hence the anticipation of performance evaluation must play a role in social facilitation. Triebe sind Radikale der menschlichen Handlungen und Verhaltungen. A drive system must give us a synthetic sight of the whole of the drive activities, comparable to the total impression which white light gives us, but it must also make it possible to display 'the spectrum' of the drives just like light can be divided in colours. It is an extremely difficult task and it is not at all astonishing that we have not yet arrived at this point.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Drive reduction theory learning theory. Important figures. Important works. Schools of thought. Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis. See also. An example would be getting nervous to speak in public. Eysenck is the most famous British psychologist. He considered that there are two major dimensions of personality which account for the many different types of person we encounter.

They are:. He proposed a model of personality based on these two universal traits, and the third dimension later added by the psychologist himself. Introversion involves focusing energy on inner experiences, while extroversion refers to focusing energy on environment and people. To put it bluntly, introverts are shy and extroverts are sociable. Emotional stability refers to the literal meaning of the term, the state of being emotionally stable or constant. And, neuroticism refers to instability of emotions, causing a person to become upset or emotional.

He added this dimension after conducting a study on mentally ill individuals. People high on this trait suggests that the individual might not be normal and might have trouble dealing with reality. General characteristics shown by these people are of being hostile, non-empathetic, manipulative and antisocial. Hull believed that behavior was one of the ways that an organism maintains this balance.

Based on this idea, Hull suggested that all motivation arises as a result of these biological needs. In his theory, Hull used the term drive to refer to the state of tension or arousal caused by biological or physiological needs. Thirst, hunger, and the need for warmth are all examples of drives. A drive creates an unpleasant state, a tension that needs to be reduced. In order to reduce this state of tension, humans and animals seek out ways to fulfill these biological needs.

We get a drink when we are thirsty. We eat when we are hungry. We turn up the thermostat when we are cold. He suggested that humans and animals will then repeat any behavior that reduces these drives. Hull is considered a neo-behaviorist thinker, but like the other major behaviorists, he believed that human behavior could be explained by conditioning and reinforcement. The reduction of the drive acts as a reinforcement for that behavior. This reinforcement increases the likelihood that the same behavior will occur again in the future when the same need arises. In order to survive in its environment, an organism must behave in ways that meet these survival needs. In a stimulus-response S-R relationship, when the stimulus and response are followed by a reduction in the need, it increases the likelihood that the same stimulus will elicit the same response again in the future.

Hull's goal was to develop a theory of learning that could be expressed mathematically, to create a "formula" to explain and understand human behavior. Hull's approach was viewed by many as overly complex, yet at the same time, critics suggested that the drive-reduction theory failed to fully explain human motivation. His work did, however, have an influence on psychology and future theories of motivation. While Hull's theory was popular during the middle part of the 20th century, it began to fall out of favor for a number of reasons. Because of his emphasis on quantifying his variables in such a narrowly defined way, his theory lacks generalizability.

However, his emphasis on rigorous experimental techniques and scientific methods did have an important influence in the field of psychology. One of the biggest problems with Hull's drive reduction theory is that it does not account for how secondary reinforcers reduce drives.

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