Compare And Contrast Gandhi And Mandela In Civil Disobedience

Wednesday, April 6, 2022 6:37:56 PM

Compare And Contrast Gandhi And Mandela In Civil Disobedience



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Mandela and Gandhi Overview and Comparison

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Finanzierungskonzept Wie wird Bildung finanziert? Bildungskonzepte umsetzen Wenn das Bildungskonzept angenommen wurde und die Finanzierung steht, beginnt der praktische Teil: die Umsetzung. Beispiele: Bildungsmanagement in der Praxis Obwohl sich das Bildungsangebot immer am konkreten Bedarf orientiert, ist das Prozedere bei Konzeption und Antragstellung eher abstrakt. Frauke Ilse Stationen. Frauke Ilse Projekte. He was defeated. This absence of most of the police made Ndebele and Shona strike against the British easier. In March , the Ndebele high priest Umlugulu with senior indunas such as Sekombo, and Babiyance organized a ceremony to install Umfezela as Lubengulas successor.

This plan failed as some policemen were murdered. The Ndebele took the British by surprise by killing them on their farms, together with Africans policemen who worked on the Whitemans farms. A total of people were killed and by April the uprising had spread throughout the country forcing the European settlers to seek refuge in camps at Gwelo, Bulawayo, Belingwe and Mangwe. In Mashonaland the settler farms were raided and the whites took refuge in camps at Headlands, Salisbury and Marandelias.

Religion played an important part in this rebellion. They stated that the drought, rinderpest and locust invasion were due to the presence of the white man. They claimed their god; the Mwari was urging them to force the white men out. They promised immunity from the British bullets. However the two communities fought separately. Major Plumer brought reinforcement from Botswana which made the Ndebele agreed to peace talks.

In the meeting the indunas presented their grievances and Rhodes agreed to their grievances. The Shona police were disbanded and the Ndebele headmen given powers. However African priest were severely punished e. Singinyamatshe was sentenced to 12 years in prison with hard labour. As the Ndebele war ended in December , the Shona uprising was at its peak. The British were able to crush the Shona resistance in October since Ndebele support was not there. Then, colonial rule was imposed on them. They are also referred to as the Luyi.

It was founded in the Zambezi valley and was situated in the present day Zambia. Their rule ended in and Lewanika led the Lozi in re-establishing the Bulozi kingdom. Lewanika did not resist the colonialists. He signed several agreements with British hoping to retain his position as king and preserve the independence of his kingdom. Lewanika was tricked into signing treaties with the British South Africa Company representatives whom he believed stood for the British government. In Lewanika asked for the British protection.

It was followed with the coming of Harry Ware, a British citizen who sought mining rights in Bulozi. He then signed a treaty with Ware granting him rights to mine for 20years. Ware later sold his concessions to two other prospectors named King and Nind who in turn sold it to Cecil Rhodes at sterling pounds on behalf of B. Frank Lochner met Lewanika with the help of a missionary Francois Coillard who had been allowed by the King to set up missions in the territory.

Later Lewanika realized that he had lost his kingdom to the British. He then requested that it be nullified, but he was ignored. In the company sent a former police officer major Robert Coryndon as British resident in Bulozi, who made arrangements for the signing of another treaty. It was a highly centralized society with powerful kings. The kings expanded the territory through warfare against their neighbours. They conquered the mineral rich areas such as Buddu, an iron ore area and Kyaggwe, a source of ivory. As a kingdom, it grew due to its good policies and economic stability. It became the most powerful state in the 19 th century. However the following kings collaborated with the Europeans.

The search for the source of river Nile led Europeans to Uganda. Because of his friendliness, Henry Morton Stanley visited in and convinced Mutesa to accept missionaries in Uganda. He accepted because. He came to power in He failed to know which religious group to support. The Muslims convinced him that the Europeans would undermine him and take over Buganda. He reacted to this by persecuting Christians. In he ordered the persecution of three young missionary society C. S converts. In October Bishop Hannington was killed. In May thirty young converts were burnt to death at Namugongo for refusing to denounce their Christian faith.

This led to a period of political instability in Buganda. In , the traditionalists urged Mwanga to expel all the foreigners whom they blamed for causing chaos in the kingdom. This made the Protestants and the Muslims to overthrow Mwanga. He was replaced by his brother Kiwewa who was later deposed by Muslims for refusing to be circumcised. Kalema, his brother took over as a ruler. This move annoyed the Europeans for it reflected the Muslim dislike for Christianity. In the Anglo-German agreement was signed between the Germans and British.

It declared Uganda a British sphere of influence. In , there was a conflict between Catholics and Protestants. In the dispute, Lugard supported the protestant and ordered Kabaka Mwanga to execute the Catholics, but Kabaka refused. In reaction to refusal, Lugard armed the Protestants who then attacked and destroyed a catholic mission. However, the Catholics hit back and almost overpowered Protestants. The Protestants got reinforcements from the Sudanese soldiers thereby defeating the Catholics.

Mwanga and the catholic leaders fled to an Island in Lake Victoria. In , Uganda was declared a British protectorate. Mwanga realized that under the British rule, he was just but a puppet for all the power was in the hands of the British administration. He was captured and exiled in Kismayu in Somalia in and later Seychelles where he died in He was succeeded by his infant son, Daudi Chwa who was assisted by three ministers, Apollo Kagwa, the Katikiro prime-minister , the chief justice Stanislaus Mugwanya and the treasurer Edward Kisingiri. This was followed with the signing of the Buganda agreement of , which aimed at ensuring that Buganda remained self sufficient to enable her meet her cost of administration.

By the agreement, chiefs were given new powers. The powers of the Kabaka and clan heads on issues of government and land were reduced. The Kabaka had to be consulted before any new taxes could be imposed on Baganda. Later the British used Buganda Christians to extend their indirect rule over other regions e. Apollo Kagwa, and the Katikiro also assisted the British in implementing their policy of indirect rule e. Germany and British interests in East Africa brought the two powers to near war despite the Berlin Conference of Zanzibar became the operational base for these rival powers as they began to focus on the interior of East Africa. Though the Berlin conference laid down the framework for the partition of Africa, it did not fully resolve the rivalry between the Germans and the British in East Africa.

Such activities almost led to war. This led to the Anglo-Germany agreement of The agreement facilitated the peaceful settlement of claims on East Africa between Germany and Britain. By this agreement. The agreement did not fully resolve the dispute between the two powers leading to the signing of another treaty in known as the Heligoland Treaty. This was signed to ease the tension between the two powers over Uganda, and it ended partition of East Africa. The British government was not originally interested in Kenya. However it only provided a passage way to Uganda and harbor facilities.

It later became a British protectorate in Other treaties were signed by agents of prominent chiefs. However many of these rulers did not understand the terms and the full implication of such agreements, e. Other treaties were signed between the Germans and the Africans e. Although the local leaders were allowed to retain their position and power, they operated under harsh conditions. The Wanga under Nabongo Mumia and the Maasai under Oloibon Lenana willingly agreed to co-operate with the British and they were compromised with goods and political benefits. The British used force to those communities that did not embrace the colonial rule. Punitive expeditions were dispatched against the Bukusu, Nandi, Abagusi, Luo and Akamba who rebelled. They built forts to enhance political control e.

The colonialists used trading companies to administer protectorates on their behalf due to the high cost that was involved to ensure effective administration. This made the company to hand over Kenya to the British government in , and it was given , dollars as compensation for its services. Kenya was declared a British protectorate in In Kenya, some communities resisted the rule of the British; others collaborated while others displayed both.

The Nandi, Agiriama. Bukusu, Somali and sections of the Kikuyu used armed resistance to protect their independence. Military expeditions were sent against the resisting communities and this intensified the struggle. They resisted the rule of the British for 11 years. This was due to the successes they had in their political social and economic structures. The decline of the Maasai power due to the succession disputes and natural calamities led to their rise. This gave them a sense of superiority and any stranger passing through their land had to seek permission or else face their wrath.

The warrior based age-set system provided the community with a strong defence. The youth got trained through the age-set on how to defend their community. This enabled them to always have a standing army which made them a powerful community. This was why they resisted the British for ten years. However the British were determined to suppress them at whatever cost, exploit the highlands and access to Uganda using the Uganda railway. The Nandi practiced mixed farming as their land was fertile. This meant that they had a strong economic base. They also had the institution of the orkoiyot prophet which united the Nandi and gave them a strong sense of unity. The Nandi staged guerrilla warfare.

They frequently attacked the caravan traders and mail carriers who passed through their territory. These attacks provoked the British who accused the Nandi of interfering with the trade and communication. In Andrew Dick murdered two warriors who strayed into his camp at Guasa Mesa. In reaction, the Nandi killed Peter West, a trader and his team. The British then sent punitive expedition in which failed to stop the raids. In the Nandi refused to cooperate with the railway builders. They refused to give them water and food and instead kept on stealing their building materials such as rails and telegraph wires to make weapons and ornaments. They also ambushed and murdered railway builders. This made the British to send punitive expeditions against them in under colonel Evatt.

The Nandi got support from the Kipsigis. Many people died hence the British and Nandi decided to settle for peace instead. Between , Walter Mayes conducted a campaign meant to pacify the Nandi and in their warriors attacked the railway in protest against the settlers who were farming on their land. British reacted by destroying crops, villages and stealing cattle. These wars went on for 3 years. The Nandi requested Koitalel to work out ways of coordinating the resistance. However captain Meinertzhagen believed that if Koitalel was murdered the warriors would be cowed. In October he invited him and his advisers who were killed on the pretext that they were planning to attack the government.

In October a military team comprising fighters of Indian, Swahili, Maasai and Somali were sent to attack the Nandi. They in turn put up a strong show and in December a truce was called by Hayes Sadler the British commissioner making the end of the 11 year rebellion. These are a Bantu speaking group along the coast. Their reaction to colonial rule was provoked by the Mazrui Arabs and the Swahili in They were also reacting to the manner in which the IBEA Co was conducting the business along the coast. Rashid was in conflict with the Busaidi al Basaidi Sultanate for collaborating with the company after the death of the Mazrui. Mbaruk should have immediately ascended to the throne. However having had a long standing trading links with the Mazrui Arabs, the Mijikemda community was willing to offer them support.

To silence the two groups, the British brought in regiments from India and they bombarded Rashids headquarters at Mweli. This made the Mazrui and Agiriama resort to guerilla warfare. The Mazrui surrendered but the Agiriama continued until They began by refusing to be recruited for K. R in They barred the young men from moving outside their villages in order to provoke the British. The Agiriama were inspired by a prophetess known as Mekatilili Wa Menza who led the Agiriama in a mass resistance against the rule of the British. She opposed forced labour, military conscription and the collection of taxes.

She was later joined by an elder Wanje wa Madorika in mobilizing the people. They called on their people to return to their ancestral shrine at Kaya Fungo and offer sacrifices. They denounced all appointed puppet rulers and called for their support for the Agiriama council of elders. To unite themselves, they administered traditional oaths where the woman took Mukushekushe and the men took the Fisi oaths. The oaths inspired the warriors to wage a serious war. A state of emergency was declared on the Agiriama and they adapted a hit and run warfare where they attacked the villages of converts and homes of loyal chiefs, headmen, Europeans and collaborators.

The missionaries sought refuge in neighbouring stations at Rabai. In retaliation the British burnt villages and crops and drove away livestock. Mekatilili and Wanje were arrested and deported to Kisii. It was easy for the British to suppress the Agiriama since they were staying in the Kayas, which they bombarded. The Arabs led by Fadhili bin Omari mediated between the Agiriama and the British marking the end of the war. This was on condition that. They offered one of the earliest and more fierce forms of resistance to the British authority in West Kenya before they were finally occupied.

The commanding officer at Kavirondo had sent a trade caravan to the Ravine station. They were ambushed by the Bukusu who stole all the rifles. The Bukusu were ordered to return the arms unconditionally by the British and they refused. The British then sent a punitive expedition which was defeated by the Bukusu. The news of the defeat reached Charles Hobley at Elureko who appealed for help from the Uganda protectorate. In two major battles were fought at Chetambes on the Webuye hill. In this the Bukusu were defeated due to poor military provisions.

Right from the beginning of the process of European invasion in East Africa, the British were not interested in the occupation of Somaliland. But later they decided to occupy Jubaland province as a British protectorate. However the Somali led by Ahmed bin Murgan reacted harshly to these developments. The Somali began by raiding Kismayu in which was a British sphere of influence. This was in response to the injuries inflicted on them by the expedition. However in the Somali murdered a British sub-commissioner for Jubaland Mr.

The British sent a punitive expedition of Indian regiment against them. The Somali were defeated. In the Somali rose up against the British and continued resistance since they had acquired arms. This ended in when boundaries were changed. By , parts of the British Somaliland were put under Italian Somaliland marking the end of the conflict. The Maasai are a Nilotic speaking people who inhabit the plains of the rift Valley.

Basically they are cattle keepers though the kwavi are mixed farmers. For a long time, the Maasai were really feared by European explorers and foreigners. But in the 19 th century this trend changed due to the death of Mbatian, the spiritual and religious leader of the Purko Maasai. His two sons Lenana and Sendeyo vied for oloibornship. This led to many problems in the community. By the Purko Maasai had split into two, Sendeyo moved with his followers to Loita hills in Tanzania while Lenana remained with another group in the Ngong Naivahsa region.

The rivalry weakened Lenana Maasai who looked for an ally to rescue them from this state of affairs. However his decision to collaborate surprised many, given that the community had a fierce reputation. The Maasai warriors were recruited as mercenaries against communities such as the Nandi and Luo of Ugenya and they were in return rewarded with confiscated cattle. The drought and famine had sent some women and children to the British and Agikuyu centres for food.

The Maasai warriors had at one time attacked a caravan that composed the Gikuyu and Somali on their way from Eldama Ravin across the Kedong valley. The attack left some of the caravan traders dead. Andrew Dick a Scottish trader with his two French friends opened fire killing Maasai. This really scared them and they had to seek for peace. The turn of events benefited Lenana who was immediately crowned the paramount chief of the Maasai. It was followed with the signing of the two treaties in maasailand, i.

They are a section of the Luyia of Western Kenya. Their leader Nabongo Mumia was ambitious and shrewd. He decided to collaborate with the British with the aim of expanding his kingdom. Initially he associated with the Arabs and Swahili traders who gave him firearms. On the arrival of the British he saw it as an opportunity to get arms. The company officials liked the hospitality and therefore built a fort and a trading station at his capital in Mumias. This was the start of better things. Mumias therefore remained the capital of western province until when it was moved to Kakamega.

This was a sign of betrayal. This refers to communities that neither received nor collaborated i. This included the following. They occupy the eastern province. They rose to prominence in the 19 th century due to their participation in the long distance trade. This conflict was intensified with the building of a Fort at Masaku from where the British sent several military expeditions against the Akamba. Several sections of the Akamba resisted while others collaborated. In the Akamba led by Nzibu Mweu boycotted and refused to sell goods to company agents.

In the same year Syonguu ordered the warriors of lveti to attack Masaku fort due to the sacrilege committed by cutting down the Ithembo tree for a flag pole. This led to the defeat of the British who reacted swiftly by burning and looting the Akamba villages. In , Mwatu Wa Ngoma ordered the Akamba to attack the British for stopping them from raiding their neighbours. He blessed them with some medicine which gave them the strength. This time they were seriously defeated by the British hence they began collaborating with the British by giving them the support and in return they were given cattle and grains confiscated from the Agikuyu and the Maasai.

Later Mwanamuka from Kangundo incited the people against the colonial police. They attacked the British boma Sheds at Mukuyuni and Mwala and killed all. They also turned against Mwatu wa Ngoma who had become a collaborator. In retaliation, the British sent an expedition to silence the Akamba using the Maasai mercenaries who took their livestock. Mwanamuka decided to blockade the Lukenya area cutting off the British communication between Fort Smith and Machakos. In retaliation, another military expedition which comprised of the Kikuyu and Maasai warriors was sent against the Akamba.

The result was many Kambas were devastated forcing Mwanamuka to petition for peace. In Captain Lugard put up a Fort at Dagoretti so as to get food for his people after entering into an agreement with Waiyaki wa Hinga. He left for Uganda and Captain Wilson who could not control the soldiers at Dagoretti, was left in charge. In return the caravan traders began stealing food and livestock from the Agikuyu, who reacted by setting Dagoretti Fort on fire. John Ainsworth , the sub-commissioner, sent a punitive expedition against Waiyaki who was arrested and died on his way to Mombasa.

In Fort Smith was closed down and another fort was opened in the interior by Francis Hall. All the land belonging to Waiyaki was given to the white settlers and missionaries and Kinyanjui wa Gathimu replaced Waiyaki wa Hinga as chief. Francis Hall was succeeded by captain Meinertzhagen who pacified all the rebellions among the Gikuyu. He supported the Muruka, and the Agikuyu of Tetu. The Gikuyu of Tetu led by chief Gakere had wiped an entire Asian caravan on the slope of the Aberdares.

Finally he was murdered and his associates were deported to the coast. In the Gikuyu of Iriaini were defeated, many of their warriors were killed and head of cattle were captured by the British. By the whole of Mt Kenya region had been put under British rule. They all settled down in their reserves up to the s when they began to fight for independence. Those of Gem and Asembo are among those who collaborated. They began by attacking the Wanga, their traditional enemies to expand their territory.

They also accommodated those who ran away from the Wanga and the British due to mistreatment. The Luo of Seme were angered by the British practice of attacking them for cattle and grains, hence they attacked the Luo of Asembo for their collaboration. In the British invaded the Luo of Seme. It was followed with their defeat and loss of lives. In the same year, the Luo of Kisumu on Winam Gulf attacked a British Canoe party which usually took fish without paying. However they were also defeated. African communities who offered mixed reactions realized their foolishness. They noted that they had the prime objective of safeguarding their culture, freedom and prestige whatever way they reacted.

Unfortunately, the British were determined to establish their authority regardless of their reaction. By the beginning of the 20 th century, many communities had been suppressed and colonial rule was effectively established. Having brought down all forms of resistance among the African communities, the British established a system of administration that would enhance their rule. They then set up the central and local government systems.

He was the political head of the British administration. He co-coordinated colonial policies discussed by the cabinet and British parliament. He was based in London. The protectorate was divided into provinces headed by P. Cs who were the representatives of the Governor. Represented the British government in the colony and was answerable to the colonial secretary.

He was the head of the executive council which effected colonial policies and programmes. The administrative hierarchy ensured that orders were issued from the highest level of administration to the lowest. The management of the central government was coordinated by the Advisory Council and the Executive Council which guided the governor and effected colonial policies. It aimed at ensuring that the locals are also involved in the running of the government. However, only the Europeans were represented in it. This idea of having a local government originated from the desire by the Europeans settlers to safeguard a number of privileges for themselves.

They then created the District Advisory Councils where members were nominated by the central government, to be a link between the local government and the central government. This ensured that European interests such as roads, electricity and schools in the colony were to be given priority. They were set up in the colony in after the Legco passed the Native Authority Ordinance to create a forum through which African grievances could be addressed by the colonial government.

In the L. C were renamed the African District Councils. Pascal Nabwane became their first African Chairman. This remained the local authority organ in African states until It had more powers and independence. Africans found in these areas were regarded as migrant labourers who were represented in their reserves. To maintain law and order, the police and the Kings African Rifles were used. An inspector was appointed from India to co-ordinate all this. The police reserve, regular police and the prisons services were created to maintain discipline, order and good governance. To facilitate maximum exploitation of the human and natural resources a relevant colonial system of administration was to be put in place.

The following systems were used:. This indirect system was applied using traditional African rulers, who administered at the local government level while the Europeans occupied the senior positions in the colonies. Under the indirect rule, each colony was divided into regions or provinces under P. Cs and each province into districts. The day to day affairs and the local ordinances were left in the hands of the traditional chiefs. To Lugard, indirect rule was not just a system of giving power to African; he also argued that traditional chiefs needed to be modernized so that the British could use them to introduce modern practices of governance to Africans.

This had to be done gradually so as not to disrupt African political structures. The African practices that were primitive e. By , Kenya had become a British protectorate, and the colonial base was shifted from Zanzibar to Nairobi. This made the British to operate according to the administrative systems of the different regions of the country therefore applying indirect rule. The communities that had chiefs e. The British appointed chiefs even over communities where the institution of the chief did not exist e. In the Village Headmen Act was enacted and it gave chiefs powers to hear cases, maintain public order and clear roads and footpaths. They would be fined if they failed to perform their duties.

In another ordinance was passed which increased their powers and responsibilities of the chiefs e. The chiefs played an important role since the British personnel were few, young and inexperienced. However many of the selected chiefs were rejected by the Africa elders and also by the young generation who saw them as instruments of colonial exploitation and oppression. They were unpopular due to the fact that they used their power to acquire riches which were in terms of land, livestock and wives e.

Musau wa Mwanza and Nthiwa wa Tama of Kambaland. The Nigerian protectorate composed of the regions which were administered separately. These were the Lagos colony, the Southern Nigeria protectorate and the Northern Nigeria protectorate. It was therefore necessary to bring the three separate entities together under one administration. This led to the integration of Lagos into Southern Nigeria in and in the Northern and Southern protectorate were merged to form one Nigeria protectorate. Lugard by then was the British Commissioner of Northern Nigeria in and by then he was experienced in administration after having employed indirect rule in Uganda.

Lugard used the centralized government of the Emirs to administer the region. Nigeria was divided into provinces led by a resident P. Below was a D. O and both were Britons. The Emirs under the D. Os had much power and responsibility to impose and collect taxes as they did before the coming of the British. In Lugard ordered that the chiefs pay a quarter of the revenue collected from taxation to the central government and use the remainder for their own needs within the emirates. This included. In Northern and southern Nigeria were brought under one system of administration inspired by the success of indirect rule in Northern Nigeria. Lugard tried to impose the indirect system on southern Nigeria. It failed due to the following.

This refers to a system of administration where indigenous political and administrative institution and leaders are replaced with an European system. The system was used in colonies with large population of white settlers such as Algeria and Southern Rhodesia. Rhodes used his large sums of money to equip a group of South African Europeans who established themselves in the Shona territories from The conquest of South Rhodesia was an extension of the South Africa system of white settler domination. From the white settlers fought the Ndebele a series of wars aimed at getting their land. Owing to their superior arms they defeated them and occupied their fertile land in Mashonaland and Matabeleland.

Under the B. C the British settlers entrenched themselves economically and politically in Southern Rhodesia. The government was headed by a resident commissioner who had various commissioners in charge of the districts. Below them were the African chiefs whose role was. In the British government set up a legislative council legco which was dominated by the European settlers e. They then created an executive council that consisted of the Resident commissioners and four nominees.

In a native Affairs department was created and was headed by an European native commissioner. This was the beginning of direct rule in Southern Rhodesia. In this, the African communities were not represented in the Legco and the policies passed were usually discriminative. In the s, more settlers began to come to Southern Rhodesia. They expected to find a lot of valuable mineral deposits which, was not the case. They retaliated by acquiring more land from African communities. By they were 11, European settlers in the colony and by it had gone to 50, This population of settlers had a direct impact on the constitutional and administrative development in Southern Rhodesia e.

The B. C set up separate reserves for Africans in Mashonaland and Matabeleland. To this end, his government also established the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. In a discussion of the commission in the New York Times , U. District Court Judge Mark Wolf described its purpose and function:. The commission was established in , as a constitutional compromise to avert continued bloodshed. Many members of the African National Congress demanded Nuremberg-style trials of white officials, who were seeking a general amnesty before agreeing to relinquish power. In principle, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission offered amnesty from prosecution only to individuals who candidly confessed their political crimes in public.

Government reparations replaced victims' rights to bring civil suits, and those who did not receive amnesty were to be subject to prosecution. The transition to democracy did not solve all of South Africa's problems. Today, many South Africans continue to face crime and poverty, and the freedom struggle did not achieve its goal of establishing economic justice. Nevertheless, Mandela will be remembered for his personal dedication to healing the nation's wounds after the downfall of a regime as brutal and entrenched as apartheid. Mandela's genius was his ability to forgive, and a charisma that let him convince his black countrymen to do likewise, and convinced his white countrymen that he meant what he said. Not all South Africans believed him, but - at least in his lifetime - they accepted his approach.

This combination - charisma and a strategic willingness to forgive one's ethnic oppressors - is so rarely found among leaders of other troubled countries as to be almost unique to Mandela. To grasp the full significance of this man you only need to look at states that desperately need a Mandela but aren't lucky enough to have one Mandela's policy of reconciliation quelled the most lurid fears of South African whites. When the Philadelphia Inquirer revisited the Fuhri family in , their position had softened significantly—in no small part thanks to Nelson Mandela:. Like many Afrikaners, Fuhri stockpiled food and weapons before the elections, anticipating that blacks would come rushing over the prairie to take his house - and his daughter, too.

But even after blacks won political control of South Africa - something unimaginable to many whites seven years ago - the wave of revenge never happened. In , Fuhri called Mandela "Satan himself. While the struggle for justice continues for South Africans facing poverty and inequality, Mandela stands as an inspirational figure for people around the world—especially to opponents of racial discrimination. By the time apartheid was being formalized in South African law in , blacks in the southern United States had been living under a system of racial segregation for more than half a century.

This system, known as Jim Crow, was a set of laws and informal practices put in place in the late 19th century, following the abolition of slavery and the US government's effective abandonment of post-Civil War Reconstruction. Supporters of Jim Crow tried to justify it by arguing that although blacks and whites were separate, they were equal. But in reality, racial segregation meant vastly inferior conditions for blacks. Apartheid and Jim Crow bore many similarities, but in other ways they were quite different.

What were some of those similarities and differences? For this activity, assign students, in groups or individually, to visit the library or search the internet for information on the apartheid and Jim Crow systems. Then have students create a Venn diagram noting the similarities and differences between the two systems. Ask students to present their findings to the class. Mark Engler. Current Issues. Nelson Mandela South Africa Apartheid. Student Reading 1: Apartheid and Its Opponents Although Europeans first colonized what is now the country of South Africa in the middle of the 17th century, it was not until the election of the Afrikaner-led National Party that the system of apartheid—with which the nation of South Africa came to be so closely associated for the second half of the 20th century—was formally instated.

In a article, Nelson Mandela—then a leading activist in the growing fight against apartheid—described the horrors of the system and the brutal means by which it was enforced: The breaking up of African homes and families and the forcible separation of children from mothers, the harsh treatment meted out to African prisoners, and the forcible detention of Africans in farm colonies for spurious statutory offenses are a few examples of the actual workings of the hideous and pernicious doctrines of racial inequality. Mandela later recalled of the effort: Prior to the campaign, the ANC was more talk than action. How might they be answered? According to the reading, what were some of the defining features of the apartheid system?

How did young people influence the mounting struggle against apartheid in the s? What was the Defiance Campaign and what were its aims? In June , David Zucchino, a reporter for the Philadelphia Inquirer , spoke with a white South African who expressed such concerns: [Johan] Fuhri, a stolid rancher who traces his South African ancestors to , knows in his Afrikaner heart that de Klerk has violated the cardinal rule of his nation and his people: Black and white shall remain forever apart. District Court Judge Mark Wolf described its purpose and function: The commission was established in , as a constitutional compromise to avert continued bloodshed.

As Philadelphia Inquirer columnist Trudy Rubin wrote in a June 9, article: Mandela's genius was his ability to forgive, and a charisma that let him convince his black countrymen to do likewise, and convinced his white countrymen that he meant what he said. When the Philadelphia Inquirer revisited the Fuhri family in , their position had softened significantly—in no small part thanks to Nelson Mandela: Like many Afrikaners, Fuhri stockpiled food and weapons before the elections, anticipating that blacks would come rushing over the prairie to take his house - and his daughter, too.

For Discussion: Do students have any questions about the reading? According to the reading, what were some of the fears of white South Africans upon the fall of apartheid? How did racism fuel these fears? What was the Truth and Reconciliation Commission? Why did Mandela's administration pursue a policy of reconciliation with its long-time opponents?

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