Archimedes Principle Lab Report

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Archimedes Principle Lab Report

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Physics I - Laboratory Report 4: Archimedes' Principle (Video Presentation)

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This is because livestock, aquatic organisms, and crops all require different levels of salinity to thrive. While there are several devices you can use to measure salinity, maintaining the correct salinity depends greatly on your specific purpose. Consult an aquarium instruction manual or look in references for information on a particular crop in order to find out what salinity to aim for. To measure salinity, start by opening the angled end of a refractometer and placing a few drops of liquid onto the prism inside. Then, close the plate over the prism carefully and look through the other end of the device. Next, look for the numbered scale from 0 to 50, and make note of the salinity reading where the white and blue areas meet.

For tips on using a conductivity meter to measure salinity in soil, read on. Did this summary help you? Yes No. Log in Social login does not work in incognito and private browsers. Please log in with your username or email to continue. No account yet? Create an account. Edit this Article. We use cookies to make wikiHow great. By using our site, you agree to our cookie policy. Cookie Settings. Learn why people trust wikiHow. Download Article Explore this Article methods. Things You'll Need. Tips and Warnings. Related Articles. Article Summary. Method 1. Use this tool to accurately measure salinity in liquids.

Refractometers measure how much light bends, or refracts, when it enters the liquid. This is called the refractive index. The more salts and other material dissolved in the water, the more resistance the light will meet and the more it will bend. This is because light travels at different velocities depending on the medium. The salinity of freshwater is less than 0.

If you are measuring the salinity of soil, use a conductivity meter. Select a refractometer designed for the liquid you wish to measure. Different liquids already refract light by different amounts, so to accurately measure additional salinity or other solids content , use a refractometer designed specifically for the liquid you intend to measure. If the liquid is not specifically mentioned on the packaging, the refractometer is probably designed to measure salt water. Note: Salt refractometers are used to measure sodium chloride dissolved in water. Seawater refractometers are used to measure the mixture of salts typically found in seawater or saltwater aquariums.

Open the plate near the angled end of the refractometer. A handheld refractometer has one round, open end to look through, and one angled end. Hold the refractometer so the angled surface is on the top of the device, and find the small plate near this end which can be moved to one side. Note: If you have not yet used your refractometer, you may wish to calibrate it first for a more accurate reading. This process is explained at the end of this section, but you may wish to read the following steps first so you are more familiar with how to work the device. Add a couple drops of the liquid onto the exposed prism. Take the liquid you wish to measure, and use an eyedropper to pick up a couple drops of it.

Transfer this to the translucent prism revealed when you moved the plate. Add enough water to completely cover the prism's surface with a thin layer. Close the plate carefully. Cover the prism again by gently pushing the plate back into position. The parts on a refractometer may be small and delicate, so try not to apply much force even if they become slightly stuck. Instead, wiggle the plate back and forth with your finger until it moves smoothly again. Look through the device to see the salinity reading. Look through the round end of the device. There should be 1 or more numbered scales visible. Wipe the prism with a soft, damp cloth.

Once you have the measurement you need, open the plate again and use a soft, slightly damp cloth to wipe the prism until it is free of water droplets. A damp tissue may work if you don't have a cloth flexible enough to reach the whole surface of the tiny prism. Calibrate the refractometer periodically. Periodically between uses, calibrate it to the correct reading by using pure, distilled water.

Add the water to the prism as you would for any liquid, and check whether the salinity reading is "0. A cheaper, older refractometer may need to be calibrated before each use. Your refractometer may come with calibration instructions that specify a certain water temperature. If none are included, use room temperature distilled water. Method 2. Use this inexpensive tool for reasonably accurate water measurements.

A hydrometer measures the specific gravity of water, or its density compared to pure H 2 O. This is accurate enough for most purposes, such as measuring salinity in an aquarium, but many models of hydrometer are inaccurate or easy to use improperly. This method cannot be used for solid material. If you are measuring the salinity of soil, see the conductivity method instead. For a more accurate measurement, use the inexpensive evaporation method, or the faster refractometer method. Narrow down your hydrometer options. Hydrometers, also called specific gravity meters , are sold online or at aquarium shops, in several different basic designs. Glass hydrometers that float in water are typically more accurate than other designs, but often don't have precise measurements listed a longer decimal.

Select a hydrometer with a listed temperature standard. Because different materials expand or shrink at different rates as they heat or cool, knowing the temperature the hydrometer was calibrated to is important when using it to calculate salinity. Select a hydrometer with a listed temperature on the device or packaging. You may use a hydrometer with a different calibration as long as it comes with a reference chart to convert its readings into salinity. Take a sample of water. Transfer some of the water you plan to measure into a clean, transparent container. The container should be wide enough to fit the hydrometer, and the water should be deep enough to submerge most of the hydrometer. Make sure the container has been rinsed free of any dirt, soap, or other materials.

Measure the temperature of the water sample. Use a thermometer to measure the temperature of the water sample. As long as you know the temperature of your sample, and the temperature standard of your hydrometer, you can calculate the salinity. For a slightly more accurate reading, you may heat or cool the sample to the temperature the hydrometer was built for. Be careful not to overheat the water, as steaming or boiling can significantly alter the specific gravity. Clean the hydrometer if necessary. Scrub the hydrometer to remove any visible dirt or other solids on the surface. Rinse the hydrometer in fresh water if it was previously used in salt water, as salt may have built up on the surface. Lower the hydrometer gently into the water sample. Glass hydrometers can be placed partially in the water, then released to float on its own.

Swing-arm hydrometers will not float, and usually come with a small tab or handle that allows you to dip them into the water without getting your hands wet. Do not submerge glass hydrometers entirely, as this can mess up the reading. Shake gently to remove air bubbles. If air bubbles are clinging to the surface of the hydrometer, their buoyancy will result in the wrong density reading. Gently shake the hydrometer to remove these, then let the water turbulence settle down before continuing. Read the measurement on a swing-arm hydrometer. Keep swing-arm hydrometers completely level, with no tilt in either direction. The measurement the arm points to is the specific gravity of your water.

Read the measurement on a glass hydrometer. In a glass hydrometer, read the measurement where the surface of the water touches the hydrometer. The required balance accuracy however, should be considered in conjunction with your required process tolerance. There are several steps in the density measurement process, and sometimes you need to wait a while for the balance to settle so it can be easy to get lost off, especially when you are busy with multiple tasks.

You confirm each instruction by pressing the OK button, so you always know where you are. Connect a barcode reader to your balance to enable meta-data, such as sample ID, lot number and order number etc. The density value is adjusted according to the temperature you input. You only need to input the temperature and select the reference liquid used. The balance records the weight values and calculates the density automatically. Measuring density of a sample is an important quality parameter of both raw materials and finished products.

Various techniques enable the density of solid, viscous and liquid materials to be accurately determined e. A variation in a raw material, indicated by a change in the density, may have a detrimental outcome on the functioning or quality of the final product. Density measurement of raw materials can be used to confirm the purity of the material. If a substance has been adulterated with a cheaper alternative, the measured density of the composite material will be different from the pure substance.

Density can also be used to ensure homogeneity. If a manufactured part is not homogenous, key performance attributes such as strength and crack resistance can be affected. For example, an internal air bubble could ultimately cause a part to fail when placed under stress. Random sampling of parts is a simple and cost-effective way to monitor ongoing quality. Common laboratory gravimetric procedures for determining density are the buoyancy technique, the displacement principle and the pycnometer method. The most widely used method is the buoyancy technique which utilizes Archimedes' principle: a body immersed in fluid indicates an apparent loss in weight equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.

This ancient principle, from around BC, is precisely what is used nowadays to determine density gravimetrically. Accurate density measurement therefore is highly dependent upon accurate weight values. Buoyancy Method - Archimedes' Principle in Action. Archimedes' principle states that a body immersed partially or fully in fluid experiences a buoyant force acting upwards on it.

The magnitude of this force is equivalent to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. The solid is weighed in air A and then again B in the auxiliary liquid with a known density. The temperature of the liquid must be taken into account as this can cause density changes of the order of magnitude 0. If you know the mass and volume of a sample solids or liquids , its density can be calculated from:.

It's quite simple to weigh a sample accurately, but determining the volume of a sample accurately can be challenging. The buoyancy method avoids the problem of determining volume because it involves weighing the sample twice in two different mediums air and a liquid. The volume can therefore be assumed to be constant in both situations. In the simplest application of the displacement method, the volume of a solid sample is determined by observing the increase in the level of the liquid in which the sample is submerged.

Conversely, when an object of known volume is submerged in a liquid with unknown density, the difference in the weight values in air and in the liquid can be used to determine the density of the liquid. A pycnometer is a specially designed glass flask, usually with a defined volume. It is most often used to determine the density of liquids. The pycnometer is first weighed empty and then full of the liquid under investigation. The difference i. The pycnometer method can also be used for determining the density of powder samples or granulates. A hollow glass tube vibrates at a certain frequency. The frequency changes when the tube is filled with different substances: the higher the mass of the sample, the lower the frequency.

Digital density meters work by measuring the frequency and converting it into density. If more than just the density is of interest, digital density meters measure density, specific gravity and other related attributes of liquid samples i. Many standards and norms exist for the determination of density in solids samples. Some of the most commonly used are:. Bulk density is a measure of how many particles, parts or pieces are contained within a measured volume.

Bulk density is not a property of the material itself. Bulk density includes the spaces between the particles or items as well as any voids within the items themselves. Bulk density can vary depending on how the material is handled; shaking a container, for example, allows parts to settle, increasing the overall bulk density. Measurement of density is an extremely important quality parameter of both raw materials and finished products. We understand there are many factors which must be considered to ensure accurate density results. If you need support with density determination or want advice on which balance or Density Kit to purchase, our team of experts is here to help. Do not hesitate to contact us for assistance.

By far, the biggest source of error in density measurement is the limited wettability of the sample. When the sample is submerged in liquid, it is crucial that all bubbles adhering to the sample and equipment are removed. Any remaining bubbles will cause a buoyancy effect and distort the density calculation. A bubble with a 1 mm diameter causes a buoyancy of 0. We recommend:. Solids are generally so insensitive to ambient temperature fluctuations that the corresponding density changes are of no consequence.

However, as density determination is carried out with an auxiliary liquid, temperature must be taken into account. Temperature has a greater effect with liquids and causes density changes of order of magnitude 0. This effect is already apparent in the third decimal place of the result. To obtain accurate results, we recommend that you always take the temperature of the auxiliary liquid into account in all density determinations. Values are available in dedicated books of tables. The densities of the most important reference liquids H 2 O and Ethanol are stored in the balance.

As mentioned above, weighing plays an important part in the accurate determination of density so it is critical that the balance used meets the needs of the density application. For small samples, the minimum net sample weight of the balance must be considered — weighing a sample below this weight cannot be trusted to be of the required level of accuracy. Manual transcription of sample data, weight values and density calculations is time consuming and prone to error. Most METTLER TOLEDO analytical and precision balances with 1 mg or higher readability can be easily used to determine density via the buoyancy technique with the use of a density kit which is mounted on the balance in a few simple steps. To measure density of solids using a balance is an easy and convenient process that delivers highly reliable results when compared to other methods in which the volume of the part is determined independently of the weight.

By converting a standard laboratory balance with the addition of a Density Kit , you avoid the necessity to purchase a dedicated piece of equipment to carry out this straightforward procedure. This makes the purchase of the Density Kit accessory a very cost-effective investment. With the addition of a glass sinker of known volume, the Density Kit can also be used for determining the density of liquid samples. The built-in Density application provides step-by-step instructions making it easy for even untrained operators to use.

Benefit further from:. The density measurement principle is exactly the same; the sample is weighed in air and again in a reference liquid. The Density Kit enables you to determine the density of solid, liquid, porous and viscous substances. With step-by-step instructions and automatic calculations, the whole process is easy. The determination of density in plastic is essential for consistent plastic quality.

Excellence analytical and precision balances can be set up with a Density Kit for density determination. LabX ensures that your density SOP is followed precisely. LabX records all weight values, performs all calculations and saves all results securely in a central database. All the data related to your density application can be transferred directly to your internal data management system. Automated Reactors and In Situ Analysis. Transport and Logistics. Expertise Library. Literature: White Papers, Guides, Brochures. Technical Documentation. On Demand Webinars. Live Events. Live Webinars. Management Investor Relations.

Service Finder Videos. Select Country. What's the best method for determining the density of solids? There are lots of steps when measuring density with a balance. How can it be simplified? What do I need to determine the density of liquids? The density of my sample is less than water — it floats! I have problems with lots of bubbles on my sample. Which balance do I need to use to get accurate density results? I have to determine the density of solid plastic samples and need to comply with ISO Which balance or scale can I use?

I have problems to follow the complicated procedure. How can I improve traceability of my measurements? How can I evaluate the measurement results of several samples?

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