Summary Of John Keats Bolt Of Beauty
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Six Odes of John Keats - Ode to a Nightingale
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The catalyst for this thought comes from his friend Robert Benjamin Haydon. The emotions of ambition, love, and death were probably intense-- given his poetic sensibilities from his ideas on the negative capability. The lightning bolt which catalyzed these ideas struck Keats, when he read Haydon's review of Raphael's The Sacrifice at Lyrstra and another article which compared Raphael to artists who seemed above passion in The Examiner of May second and ninth, :.
Although the sacrificial animal in the cartoon is a white bull, Haydon gave a great deal of information about the Greek ceremonies, in which a heifer, garlanded, was the victim, and the worshipers were often loose-robed, with disheveled hair His creations "look as if they were above the influence of his time; they seem as if they would never grow old, and had never been young. The "immortal youth" of the Greek spirit Gittings Upon reading the art review, Keats met with Haydon. Haydon gave him the idea on how to present his own life through the invention of a greek vase, not as an ode to a urn itself, but as a creation of his imagination to present his own meditation on life Motion, The main idea Haydon imparted to him was that Greek art is an ideal form of beuty because its formal perfection mirrored it society Motion This conception has to do with the negative capability, served as station piece for his own ideas.
While, Keats had seen Greeks vases before from Haydon, visited the Elgin Marbles and sketched the Soisbios vase, these are influences on the way in which the bearty of greek art represents its society in its art Motion However, they are not the subject of the Ode itself, but influences on its production, not as the vase itself. Elmes was the editor of the Annals of Fine Arts and associated with Haydon, due to Haydon's work on renaissance sculpture and ancient art. The Annals was a poignant magazine to publish this work in because it was a publication devoted to the promotion of Greek Art Motion, Therfore, placing "Ode on A Grecian Urn" in this journal, Keats signaled his own devotion to the idea of perfection through greek from Motion The poem was copied by Brown, under Keats supervision, and turned over to Elmes to be printed in January edition of the Annals , without any editorial interferance Motion This initial edition of the poem present an urn fused with the voice of the speaker and makes their voices become to seem as if they are indistingusihable from one another please see next section.
The version presented to Elmes is considered to be the more authoritative version, since Keats was healthy and he saw it through print. The important thing to note is the variation in syntax throughout the entire poem. Agnus, and other Poems edition published June 26, Unfortunately, Keats became sick and was unable to give much authorial direction in its editing and publication Motion, In this way, Keats effectively abdicated his work to Woodhouse because he trusted his ability to be faithful to his poetry Motion, While, Woodhouse had a knowledge of the theory behind Keats' negative capibility, he was of a more conservative in his editorial style and the presentation of this capablitity.
Motion, Therfore, the Lamia editors, Woodhouse along with John Taylor also Keats' publisher focused on and representing the Urn as a timelessness object Gittings, Odes In so doing, however, they substantively altered the syntax of the poem and seperated the voice of the narrator and created a seprate voice for the urn. While the editors did offer Keats choice, he was plagued by consumption tuberculosis and was unable to halt the changes made by the editors, which was also partly due to an editorial anxiety to alter the poems in order to make them more agreeable to the publice, due to Keats' earlier failure to be appreciated with Endymion Motion Keats was so distressed over the corruption of the poem that in his personal distribution copy, he crossed out the editorial advertisement and wrote: "this is none of my doing--I was too ill at the time" and "this is a lie" Motion Sadly, the Lamia edition's syntax remained as the authoritative version because Keats left for Italy before he could do anything about the alteration Motion, Once he left for Rome, his condition slowly worsened to a point that his poetic ambitions had to be put aside, in favor of his health because he was slowlt dying from tuberculosis.
In some sense, the editors of the edition chose to take Keats' choice of an urn too literally and accentuated the differences between the speaker's voice and gave a voice to the urn. This editorial action submerged the negative capability movements of the speaker because they intensify the separateness of the urn from the speaker, when the idea of negative capability is a fusionwith the object - but not separateness - of the poet with the aesthetic object see appendix on the Negative Capability. Therefore, the Annals edition presents an initial separation of the speaker and the urn, which quickly become fused into one voice because it shows the process of the unification of the Urn and the speaker.
The way in which personal emotion becomes fuse with the Urn survive in the images on the urn. In stanza II, the piper who "never canst Therefore, a sense of ambiguity emerges between Keats' speaker as representing his own life and the imageson the urn. The image becomes a point of fusion on the emotional suffering in some sense of Keats': his ability to be close to someone he loves by writing her a poem, just as the piper sings his song, yet there is still a gulf between him and his love a love-poem to Brawne is mentioned in Gittings, Keats In Stanza III, the setting of the images on the Urn is spring time the speaker says: "nor ever bid the Spring Adieu" on the ability of the urn to stay in spring ll.
In this image on the vase, Keats' speaker reveals his desire to live in an eternal spring, just as Keats writes in his letter to his sister on his exuberance about the dawning season "O there is nothing like fine weather," from above. However, despite the "happy" spring, it leaves the "heart high-sorrowful and cloyed" ll. This feeling of sorrow is related to the death of his brother Tom and its feelings of powerlessness in Keats; it mimics the rhetoric of his "Darkness" sonnet, which is about the contradictory emotions of life and death, which he can,t completely reconcile on his own.
In Stanza IV, the garland heifer and the sacrifice ceremony are related to the far removed and ancient people in the vase because cannot tell their story "evermore," due to the fact that they don,t exist ll. Since Keats' brother died of tuberculosis, this exposed him to the possibility of immanent death to the same disease. In some sense, the Greek act of sacrifice, of ritual with the heifer, is an event without a story behind it, just as Keats might empathize with his own poetry's loss of meaning after his death. Therefore, there is a fusion of emotion between Keats himself and the poem because the emotions surrounding his life, the anxiety of his oncoming death and the future existence and meaning of his poetry become enfused in the ritual sacrifice and its evaporated meaning.
The point of representing these images is to show the way the climate of Keats emotions--a tug-of-war between melancholy and exuberance--are present on the Urn. While the evidence of the fusion between the urn and Keats emotions survives, the fusion of the speaker and the urn--the ambiguity between the concreteness of the Urn and the speaker's separate identity is not present in the Lamia edition because it works to separate these two objects. However, the Annals edition focuses on the process of unification between the urn and speaker as a process in Stanza I, which runs through the emotional identification of the urns images and culminates into a fusion of voice in Stanza V.
In the Lamia edition of the Ode, the opening line is: "thou still unravished bride of quietness. While, the Lamia edition's represents a separate object, the focus is on emphasizing the timeless quality of the urn because "still" comes to connote unravished or unfulfilled, this covers up the potential emotion in the Urn unravished means in some sense unfulfilled sexually or emotionally. It remains an object untouched by time. The result of this is to "cover-up" in the Lamia version is to the initial separation which will open up the fusion of the Speaker's voice and the Urn, later on in the poem. The most poignant difference between the version, is the separation of the Urn's voice from the Speaker's voice, in Stanza V of the Lamia version:.
Than ours, a friend to man, to whom thou say'st, 'Beauty is truth, truth beauty'; that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know. The quotation makes around "Beauty" separates the fusion of emotions and images in the previous stanza because it gives the Urn a separate voice from the speaker. The affect this produces is to alter the meaning of the poem because it submerges the fact there is emotional commiseration between the speaker and the urn. This idea of unification with an object is a key point to Keats' idea on the negative capability because it involves an ambiguity of the relationship between the poet and the object.
The poet is supposed to throw his own identity into an object, in order for all the other factors to evaporate and leave the purity of emotion he attempts to communicate. Therefore, the Lamia version's separation of the speaker and the urn thwarts the exposition of the negative capability. In contrast to Lamia , the Annals version closes without quotation marks because it shows the unity of the speakers voice and the urn:.
Annals edition, ll. The original absence of quotation marks around the "Beauty" quote creates an ambiguity on whether its the speaker or the urn voice or a combination issuing this wisdom. While the speaker does say "thou say'st" of the urn , this is not a separation of the vase from the speaker because it becomes an agreement with the vase, an acquiescence to the knowledge it imparts. The ambiguity is important because it remains faithful to Keats negative capability by leaving open the possibility of a unification between the two objects. In the Lamia version, "truth" and "beauty" take on an admonishing quality, whereas in this version they come into a simultaneous existence because of the commiseration between the speaker and the urn; once there is an evaporation of distinction, then the only thing left to communicate is the intensity of the object's message, to Keats this is the merging of "beauty" and "truth.
In some sense this is ironic discussion on meaning because the scene of the heifer is about the lack of meaning in ritual art due to the sufferings of time, just as Keats' meaning suffered at the pen of his editor. The fusion of voices is drowned in the Lamia edition because there becomes a certain fixed quality to the urn and its images, which is not present in the Annals edition of the poem. Therefore, it seems the Annals version of "Ode on A Grecian Urn" is closer to the aesthetic theory of Keats, than the widely received Woodhouse version of the poem because the Annals maintains an emotional ambiguity on the relationship between its author, speaker and object.
Bates, Walter Jackson. John Keats. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Gittings, Robert. London: Heinemann Educational Books, Ltd. I arrive to France the September 30 by plane and I need transport to Mougny. I don't know if is because is sunday but I can't find ticket neither train neither bus, in internet. Accept any idea!! I hope luckRegards!! Nice to see the map where students are conmig from but it does not represent international students. What about Canada and your international students?? My daughter is thrilled to return for her second year and we live in Canada. Can you please post the Canadian and international participation rate? Posted on by a guest. Amy, Thanks for reminding us! Keats is lovely.
The contrasts in here are to die for! Also, very reminiscent of romeo and juliet. Bloody hell. I know that this guy must be the ladies man of his day, but none of his poetic shit works today I mean have u ever tried one of his lines?? I could be martyred for my religion. Love is my religion and I could die for that. I could die for you. Yes the poem is long, however, there is a clear plot with central characters which reinforces the apperance of a narrative poem.
I've found this has helped me gain a better understanding of the poem and allows the reader to become more engaged with the text. Of course there are plenty of ways in which you can relate the poem - or parts of the poem - to aspects of narrative, such as scenes and places and characterisation.